Woman Presidential Candidates 1990-99


This is a list of the women who stood as
candidates for the post of President.

Those who won can be seen at Female Presidents

1990 Blanca Rojas Echaverry, Nicaragua

Leader of the Nicaraguan Central American Union Party. 1997-98 she was Minister of Culture.  Voletta Chamorro won the elections.

1990 Marie-Colette Jacques, Haïti

Having lived in USA and Canada since 1975, she returned in 1990 to register her part party, Party for the Integral Advance of the Haitian People, and run in the presidential elections as one of 26 candidates. Now lives in New York. (b. 1957-).

1992 and 1998 Dr. Heide Schmidt, Austria

1988-90 Secretary General and 1990-93 Vice-Chairperson of FPÖ, 1990-94 3. President of the Nationalrat, Leader of Liberal Forum 1993-2000 and again in 2008. As the second vice-President of the National Council she was part of the collective vice-presidency of the Republic together with the P resident and first Vice-President of the Council.

1992, 1998 and 2016 Miriam Defensor Santiago, The Philippines

1987-89 Chairperson of the Cabinet Commission of Immigration and Deportation, Secretary of Agrarian Reform 1989-90, Around 1990 Chairperson of People’s Reform Party, Senator 1995-2001 and 2004, Judge of the International Criminal Court 2011–2014. (b. 1945-).

1992 and 1998 Imelda Ramúaldez Marcos, The Philippines

1975-86 Governor of Manila, 1978-84 Secretary of Resettlement, 1978-83 Secretary of Ecology, 1982-84 Member of Executive Council of Cabinet, 1987-1993 Leader New Society Movement Party. Married to President Ferdinand Marcos, who ruled as a dictator until his fall in 1987. In 1998 she withdrew her candidature before the elections   but was elected to the House of Representatives. (b. 1927-)

1992 Prof. Tina Anselmi, Italy

Active in the resistance movement during World War II. Leading member of the Christian Democrats, 1974-76 Undersecretary of Social Affairs and Labour, 1976-78 Minister of Labour and Social Security, 1978-79 Minister of Health. When the Parliament elected a President in 1992 she was one of the three female candidate of a total of 42. (b. 1927- )

1992 Nilde Iotti, Italy
The President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies 1979-92 and leading Communist was one of the three female candidates in the Parliament’s attempts to elect a President between the 44 candidates in total. Sophia Loren appeared on one ballot paper. See biography at Presidents of Parliaments 1970-90. Iotti lived (1924-99)

1992 Marthe Ferrari, Italy

1992 Savka Dapcevic Kucar, Croatia

The Premier 1967-69 and leader of the Croatian Communist Party from 1969 was removed from office by President Tito because of her too liberal views in 1971 she was afterwards leader of the Croatian "Spring Movement" - the liberalization attempts. After Croatia became independent in 1991 she founded the People’s Party. She lived (1923-2009).  

1992, 2008 and 2016 Gloria E. LaRiva, United States of America

Vice-Presidential nominee in 1984, 1988, 1996 and 2000.

1992, 21996, 2000 and 2004 Millie Howard, United States of America

Independent. 2004 she was seeking Republican nomination as Presidential candidate. (1937-).

1992 Susan Block, United States of America

A sexiologist and political activist, she registered as an independent candidate.


1992 Helen Betty Halyard, United States of America

Candidate for the Workers League / Socialist Equality Party. Vice-Presidential candidate in 1984 and 1988.

1992 Lagle Parek, Estonia

The former dissident and political prisoner was Leader of the National Independence Party 1988-93 and Minister of the Interior 1992-93.  

1992 Darja Lavtižar Bebler, Slovenia

1990 she was elected to the Socio-Political Chamber of the Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Member of the National Assembly 1996-2000 and from 2004, Ambassador to the Council of Europe 2001-04.

1992 Alenka Zagar-Slana, Slovenia



1992 Maria Kristova, Czechoslovakia

Candidate for the Liberal Social Union.  

1992 and 1999 Amália de Vitoria Pereira, Angola

Chairperson of Partido Liberal Democratico and President of the Parliamentary Group 1992-2009. Her full name was Analia Maria Caldeira de Victória Pereira Simeão. She lived (1941-2009).

1992 and 2002 Angèle Bandou, Congo-Brazaville

Candidate from the "Parti africain des pauvres", she finished last both
times. She was assassinated, and
lived (1948-2004).


1993 Maria Stribonová, Czech Republic

Chairperson of the Left Block 1993/94-96

1993 Jeanne-Marie Ruth-Rolland, Central African Republic

Worked as a state social monitor in 1966. Then she became President of the Red Cross. Under President Kolingba she was jailed because of her political ideas. In August 1987 a Special Jury for Political matters condemned her to a 3-year's imprisonment. She was released in 1989, but she was arrested again in December 1989 after refusing to make way for a Presidential retinue. Then she was handcuffed and taken into a paramilitary camp "National Security Company". She was finally released in April 1991. 1992-96 Leader of Parti Republican de Centroafrique and MP 1993-98 and Minister of Women's Affairs in 1993. She lived (1937-95).

1994 and 2000 Elisabeth Rehn, Finland

In the 1994 Presidential Elections she finished second in second Round with 46, %. In 2000 she ended fourth in first Round with 3,4%. See biography at Female Defence Ministers. Tarja Halonen won the 2000-elections. (b. 1935-).

1994 Eeva Kuuskaski, Finland

1983-87 and 1991-92 Minister of Health and Social Affairs. For many years she was a leading member of the Center Party, and considered a front-runner in the Presidential elections. But she resigned in protest of the party's economic policy. The official candidate for the party finished 3rd in the 1994-elections.

1994 Rhina Escalante de Rey Prendes, El Salvador  

Procurator General 1989-90 - chief procecuter of the republic, a one year term in El Salvador. Candidate for the Christian Democratic Movement. (MDC).

1994 Cecilia Soto Gonzáles, Mexico

From 1994 Leader of Partido del Trabajo. Since 2001 Ambassador to Brazil.

1994 Marcela Lombardo Toledano, Mexico

MP 1976-1979 and 1988-1991 and Candidate for the Socialist People's Party (PPS), opting 0.47% of the votes, which ment that the party loss of the official registry to her party

1994 Gloria Gaitán, Colombia

Left wing candidate.m(b. 1937-).


1994 Doris de Castro, Colombia

Candidate for the Christian Democrats and got 0,10% of the votes.

1994 Sirma Dissanayke, Sri Lanka

Took over as candidate after the assassination of her husband. Her opponent, Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga won with over 60 percent of the votes. See Presidents.

1994 Dr. Dr. Hildegard Hamm-Brücher, Germany

The Grand old Lady of the Liberal Party (FDP) and Minister of State of Foreign Affairs 1977-82, who left the government in 1982 in protest against the change of alliance from the Social Democrats to the Christian Democratic Union, but remained a leading figure in the party. (1921-).  

1994, 1999 and 2005 Antonieta Rosa Gomes, Guinea-Bissau

Leader of Foro Cívic da Guiné (Guinean Civil Forum) since 1995 and Presidential Candidate in 1994, 1999 and 2005. 2000-2001 Minister of Justice. In January 2001 her party left the coalition government rejoined it in March and she became Minister of Foreign Affairs

1994 and 2007 Domenique Voynet, France

Leader of the Green Party since 1994 and Minister of Environment 1998-2001, when she became Secretary General of the party.

1995 Mercedes Mercedes Cabanillas Bustamente de Llanos de la Mata, Peru

Minister of Education 1987-89 and 1989-90, 1989 Candidate for the Mayorship of Lima, from 1992 Deputy Secretary and since 2000 Co-spokesperson in the Congreso of the Socialist Party. Circa 1990-99 Senator, Presidential Candidate 1995 (Came in third) and from 2000 member of the Congreso and its 2. Vice-President 2002-03 and President 2006-07, and Minister of Interior in 2009. (b. 1947-).

1995 Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, Poland

President of the National Bank of Poland in 1991-2001, Vice President of European Bank for Reconstruction and Development responsible for Human Resources and Administration 2001-06, MP from 2005, Vice-chairperson of Civic Platform since 2006 and Mayor of Warszawa (Warzaw) from 2006. She is married and has one daughter. (b. 1952).

1995 and 2000 Jolanta Żytkiewicz, Poland

Candidate for the Polish Union of Green's Movements. She is the economist and the director of the Institute of the Development of the Personality. In 2000 she resigned from the race before the election. (b.1948-).


1995 and 1999 Lia Victoria Mendez, Argentina

Lawyer. In 1989 candidate to vice-President by the Humanista-Verde Alliance (Nacion por la Alianza Humanista-Verde). In 1994, when merging both parties, she was designated Secretary General of Partido Humanista. In 1995 her running mate was Liliana Beatriz Ambrosio.


1995 and 1999 Flor de María Alvarado Suarez de Solis, Guatemala

As candidate for Popular Democratic Force she got less than half a percent of the vote.


1996 Vera Ileva, Bulgaria

Communist candidate with Iskra Janeva as running mate and vice-Presidential candidate.  

1996 Shih Chi-Ching, Taiwan

A bestseller author on marriage and divorce and an advocate for women's rights. She states that the ROC reportedly ranks the lowest on women's rights in Asia, and 88th out of 96 countries according to a recent international survey. 

1996 and 2000 Dr. Heather Anne Harder, United States of America

Candidate in the Democrat Primary. 2004 she did not manage to get nominated as primary candidate.

1996 Mary Cal Hollis, United States of America

Works as a special education teacher. A former Democrat, she has also been active for many years on behalf of numerous leftists and vegetarian causes. As the Socialist Party's Presidential nominee in 1996. She was her party's Vice-Presidential Candidate in 2000.


1996 Susan Duncan, United States of America

Sought nomination as Republican Presidential Candidate and was a candidate in the primaries in a number of states.


1996 Ann Jennings, United States of America

Sought nomination as Republican Presidential Candidate and was a candidate in the primaries in a number of states.  


1996 Joan Pharr, United States of America

Sought nomination as Republican Presidential Candidate and was a candidate in the primaries in a number of states.  


1996 Mary Frances Le Tulle, United States of America

Sought nomination as Republican Presidential Candidate and was a candidate in the primaries in a number of states.  


1996 Georgina H. Doerschuck, United States of America

Sought nomination as Republican Presidential Candidate and was a candidate in the primaries in a number of states.  

1996 Elvena Lloyd-Duffie, United States of America

Sought nomination as Democratic Presidential Candidate and was a candidate in the primaries in a number of states.  

1996, 2000 and 2016 Monica Moorehead, United States of America

Candidate for the Worker’s World Party. In 1996 her vice-Presidential running mate was Gloria La Riva.

1996 and 2004 Dianne Beall Templin, United States of America

Candidate for the Amercian Party. Candidate for the State Assembly 1994, for Attorney General of Callifornia, 1998 and 2002, for the US Senate 2000 and in the California Gubernatorial Recall Election in 2003. (b. 1947-)

1996 Marsha Feinland, United States of America

Candidate for the Peace and Freedom Party with Kathe McClatchy as running mate.  

1996 Samiha Khalil, Palestine

Leader of a Women's Organization for many years. She lived (1923-99).

1996 Alda Bandeira Tavares Vaz da Conçeicao
Sao Tomé e Principe

1991-92 Minister of Foreign Affairs and 1992-93 Minister of Co-operation. She is married to former Premier Minister Noberto Costa Alegre.  Foreign Minister again from 2002.


1996 Jeridine Williams-Sarho, Sierra Leone  

Leader of the Coalition for Progress Party 1995-96.

1996 Gudrún Agnarsdóttir, Iceland

Candidate of the Alliance of the Women's List, coming third with 26.4 % of the vote.

1996 Siiri Oviir, Estonia

The Estonian Minister of Social Affairs 1990-92 and 1995. Leader of the Parliamentary Faction of the Estonian Center Party 1996-99 and since 1999 vice-President of the Parliament.  

1996 Ilga Kretuse, Latvia

The Chairperson of the Siema 1995-96 and Minister of European Affairs 1997.

1996 Dr. Marina Livitchi, Moldova  

Represented the Agrarian Party in the Parliament 1994-98 and was Chairperson of the Party of Social Economic Justice 1997-98. Professor of sociology, she is confined to a wheelchair, and left the country after 2000.

1996 Veronica Abramcivc, Moldova

Circa 1996-97 Chairperson of the Socialist Party of Moldova and since 1997 Co-Chairperson of the Party of the Socialists of the Party of Moldova (SPRM)

1996 Iuliana Gorea-Costin, Moldova

From 1995-2005 Representative to Council of Europe since 2000 with rank of Ambassador, 2005 Candidate for Mayor of the Chisinau municipality.

1997 Mary Banotti, Ireland

Member of the European Parliament for Finne Gael since 1994, she was one of four female and one male candidates in the Presidential elections won by Mary McAleese. See Presidents. Benotti finished second with 30% of the votes. Mary McAleese won the elections and was reelected unopposed in 2004. (b. 1937-). 

1997 Dana Rosemary Scallon, Ireland

Former popular pop-singer who moved to USA and represented the religious right in the campaign. In 1999 she became member of the European Parliament for Finne Fail. 2004 she failed to gather the necessary support to be nominated as Presidential Candidate from either 20 MPs or 4 County Councils.

1997 Adi Roche,  Ireland  

Candidate for the Labour Party, Democratic left and Green Party, finishing fourth with 7%.

1997 Charity Kaluki Ngilu, Kenya

The successful businesswomen finished fourth in the normally totally male dominated politics of Kenya. She later founded the National Party of Kenya, which she has been leader of since. Minister of Health 2003-07. (b. 1952-).

1997 Wangari Maathai, Kenya

Leading member of the opposition against former president Moi, an environmentalist activist and detained several time, Lseader of the The Mazingira Green Party of Kenya from 2002. MP 2002-07, Assistant Minister of Environment, Natural Resources and Wildlife 2003-07 and awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize for her work for the environment and women's liberation in 2004. (b. 1940-).

1997 Remedios Loza Alvarado, Bolivia

Leader of the Concencia de Patria party.

1997 and 2003 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Liberia  

1972-73 and 1977-79 Secretary of State of Finance, 1979-80 Minister of Finance, 1980 President of the National Bank, 1980-85 Leading Member of  the Opposition, 1985-86 in Prison, 1990-94 Leading member of exile-government of Amos Sawyer in United States of America, 1994-97 African Director of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program). From 1997 Leader of the Unity Party. 2003 received the highest number of votes in the first round of voting in the "electoral college" comprising the three warring parties, but in the second round the third ranking was elected interim President. Won the elections in 2006. (b. 1939-).

1997 Alba Nora Gúnera de Melgar, Honduras

Finished second. Her full name is Alba Nora Gúnera Osorio vda. de Melgar Castro and she is the widow of a former President. 

1997 and 2005 Azam Taegani, Iran

A former MP, she was one of the 27 women who were rejected as candidates by the Iranian Guardian Council. Also rejected when she put her name forward in 2005.

1998 Rosaliá Arteaga Serrano, Ecuador

Former Provincial Governor, Minister, Vice-President and Acting President. See biography at Presidents.


1998 Maria Eugenia Lima, Ecuador  

Candidate for the communist-oriented Democratic People's Movement, finishing sixth.  

1998 Mag. Gertraud Knoll, Austria

1994-2003 Lutheran Superintendent (Bishop) of Burgenland. Mother of 3 children, the youngest born in 19997. (b. 1958-)

1998, 2002 and 2010 Noemí Sanín Posada de Rubio, Colombia

Former Foreign Minister. Leader of the independent movement "Si Colombia". In 1998 she finished third and in 2002 fourth. See biography at Female Foreign Ministers

1998 Beatriz Cuéllar de Ríos, Colombia  

1998 Thereza Ruiz, Brazil

1997-98 Minister without Portfolio, 1998-2000 Vice-President of the Government. See Vice Premier Ministers. (b. 1948-)

1998 Yolanda Gutiérrez Ventura, Costa Rica

Her Vice-Presidential Candidates were Leda García Pérez and Rafaelita Dobles Hidalgo.

1998 Norma Vargas Duarte, Costa Rica

Candidate for the Partido Pueblo Unido. One of her vice-Presidential Candidates was Ana Cecilia Jiménez Arce Pérez.

1998 Naruba Volio Brenes, Costa Rica

Candidate for the Partido Rescate Nacional.

1998 Zlatka Popovska, Macedonia

1997-98 Minister without Portfolio, 1998-2000 Vice-President of the Government. See Vice Premier Ministers.(b. 1948-).

1998 Déborah Nazi Boni, Burkina Faso
An author. (d. 2001)

1998 Brigitta Schömegova, Slovakia

One of many candidates in the many vain attempts by the Parliament to elect a President in 1998. See biography in Vice Premier Ministers.


1998 Marygrace Molina Faigao Sumagpang, Philippines


1998 Luzviminda Maturan-Raval Penaranda, Philippines

Luz Penaranda ran as an independent. 


1998 Elizabeth Aspacios Delos Santos, Philippines



1998 Marita Duero Urgonia Arilla, Philippines



1998 Modesta Rosario Sabeniano, Philippines


1999, 2004 and 2009 Megawati Soekarnoputri, Indonesia

In 1999 she was Presidential candidate, but instead the parliament elected her as Vice-President and she took over as President in 2002 after her predecessor was ousted. In 2004 she run for re-election as the only female candidate. She came in second in the first round but lost the second round. In 2009 Meuthia Farida Hatta-Swasono,  Dita Indah Sari and Ratna Sarumpaet had declared their intend to run as candidates but did not qualify as their parties did not enter parliament. (b. 1946-).

1999 Prof. Dr. Barbara Schipanski, Germany

The CDU candidate was the first female rector/Chancellor of a German Technical University in Germany’s May-elections. 1999-2004 Minister of Science and Technology in the State of Thüringen, and from 2004 President of the State Assembly. In 2004 when CDU was certain to win have their candidate elected in the Electoral College; they put forward a male candidate.

1999 Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Germany

A leading catholic theologian and dissident. Daughter of President Heinemann and aunt of Johannes Rau's wife. Rau won the elections.

1999 Rosa Russo Jervelino, Italy

1987-89 Minister for without Portfolio for Special Affairs, 1989-92 for Social Affairs, 1992-94 of Education and 1998-99 of the Interior and Minister in Charge of Co-ordination of the Civil Defence. She was Secretary of the Partito della Democrazia Cristiana1992-94 and 1994-circa 96 President of the Partito Populare Italiana afterwards vice-President.  In 1999 her party nominated her as candidate for the post of President. 2006 three people in the 1.000 member electoral college put her name on the ballot in one of the rounds of voting. Also Princess Maria Gabriella di Savoia, Linda Giuva and Barbara Palombelli appared on ballot papers. (b. 1936-).

1999, 2013 and 2015 Emma Bonino, Italy

IShe was secretary of the Parliament Group of Partito Radicale 1976-78, Group Vice-President 1979, Party President 1991-93 and Party Leader 1993-95, Presidential Candidate 1999,  Leader of La Rosa nel Pugno from 2005, Minister of International Trade and Minister without Portfolio for European Affairs 2006-08, Vice-President of the Senate 2008-13 and Foreign Minister from 2013. (b. 1948-)

1999 Magdaléna Vásáryová, Slovakia

Former Actress and among other Ambassador to Austria and later to Poland. She had generally been expected to be the favourite and to win, but finished second. State Secretary of Foreign Affairs 2005-06.

1999 Ingrîda Ûdre, Latvia  

1998 Co-Chairperson and 1998-99 Vice-Chairperson of the Saeima Facion of the New Party. 1999 Minister of Economics and from 2002 President of the Parliament. As winner of the turbulent election-process where the parliament failed to elect a President in the first attempt was Vaira Vike-Freiberga - see Presidents. (b. 1958-).

1999 Vaira Paegle, Latvia

MP the People's Party and Member of the Foreign Affairs and European Affairs Committee.

1999 Inese Vaidere, Latvia

1998-99 State Minister for Environment and from 1999 Presidential Advisor on Economical and Political Affairs.

1999 and 2010 Nataliya Mykhaylievna Vitrenko, Ukraine

Leader of the Communists.


1999 Valentyna Yukhymivna Datsenko, Ukraine

Since 1997 President of All-Ukrainian Party of Women’s Initiatives


1999 Tetiana Andriivna Zadorozhna, Ukraine


1999 Gladys Marín Milli, Chile

Her full name is Gladys Marín Mille viuda de Muños. For a number of years Leader of The Left (Communists).  

1999 Sara Larraín Ruiz-Tagie, Chile

An university professor she was candidate for the Green Party.   

1999 Arabella Elizabeth Castro Quinones de Compaparini, Guatemala

Former Minister and President of Parliament 1994-95 and 1997-98.  

1999 Catalina Soberanis Reyes, Guatemala

1991-92 President of the Congress.

1999 Irene Lailin Sáez Conde, Venezuela

Irene Saez is former Mayor in a part of Caracas, 1999-2000 Governor of Nuevo Esparta (Islas de Margaritas etc).

1999 and 2003 Patricia Cecilia Walsh, Argentina

Member of the Congress from 2002 for a Leftwing Party.

1999 Elizabeth Hanford Dole, United States of America

1981-83 Assistant to the President for Public Liason,  
1983-87 Secretary of Transportation, 1989-90 Secretary of Labor, In 1990-99 President of Red Cross of USA, Married to former Senator Bob Dole, who was the Republican Presidential Candidate in 1996, in 1999 she run herself, but withdrew before the Republican Convention because of lack of funding. Senator for New Carolina 2002-09, when she failed to get re-elected.
(b. 1936-)

Last update 26.02.16