Mongolia Heads Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Heads of State of Mongolia/Monggol Uls
(Female suffrage 1921) 1911 declaration of autonomy under Chinese suzerainty, occupied by Soviet troops 1921 and a declaration of independence followed the same year, recognized 1924.

Also see Mongolia Ministers

The Qara Khitai Empire covered parts of present day’s Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Mongolia

734-41 Khatun and Regent Mo-Ki-Lien of Mong 

Until 970 Princess Alan-Goa of Hori-Tumat

From 926 Khatun Shu-lü Shih of Purtmish Mongolia

1086-93 Regent the Dowager Khanum of the Tanguts
For Li Qianshun

1190.. Advisor Hoelun of the Mongol TribesWhen her son Temüjin, later known as Genghis Khan, became leader of the Confederation of Mongol Tribes, she became his mos trusted advisor. When her husband, Yesugei, the chief of the Kiyad clan, died, his clan abandoned her and her sons, who were therefore raised in the harsh environment of the Mongolian steppes.  

1190... Political Advisor Grand Khanum Börte Ujin of the Mongol Empire As his first wife, she was the head of the first Court of Genghis Khan.
Her father, Dei Seichen,was a chieftain of the Onggirat tribe, which was friendly to Temüjin's tribe. When his father was murdered by the Tartars, and she was abducted by Merkits. Temüjin with Wang Khan and Jamuqa's armies rescued her from her captors. She was held captive for eight months, and she gave birth to Jochi right after she was rescued. Mother of 4 other sons and 5 daughters. As Genghis Khan continued to expand his influence and empire, Borte remained behind and assisted Genghis Khan's brother Temuge in ruling the Mongol homeland.

1241-46 Khamum Regnant Törägänä of The Qagans (and Yuan in China)
Her son, Guyuk, was Khan 1246-48.

1248-51 Khanum Regnant Hatun Ogul Gamys of The Qagans of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang) and of Qara Khitai (China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)  
Also known as Oghul Qamish or Ghaimish. After the death of her husband, Guyuk, she became acting regent for her three young sons - in effect, then, regent for the whole waste Mongol empire. She ruled over parts of China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakstan and Turkestan.

1251-52 Politically Influential Khanum Sorghaghtani Beki of The Qagans (and Yuan in China)
As the daughter-in-law of Chinggis Khan, she pointed out that future khans ought to be Chinggis' direct descendants. The powerful nobles quickly sided with Sorghaghtani against the regent, Khanum Oghul, and Sorghaghtani's eldest son Mongke emerged as victor. He was enthroned in 1251, setting in place the accession of the future rulers of the Mongolian Empire through the Tolui line. For this, Sorghaghtani has been called the "directing spirit of the house of Tolui." Throughout the first year of her son's rule, the influence and teaching of Sorghaghtani was felt. She had ensured that her sons received proper training and the skills in combat and administration necessary to rule empires. Although she herself was illiterate, she gave them an education. She set an example for them in showing the good results that can come from supporting rather than exploiting the non-Mongol peasants in the lands she controlled. Understanding what Khubilai Khan would need to rule China, she introduced him to the concepts of Confucian thought. Herself she was a Nestorian Christian who patronized a variety of foreign religions. She was daughter of  Jakha Gambu Khan of the Kerate Tribe. She (d. 1252).

1251-? Warrior Princess Khutulun of The Qagans (and Yuan in China)
She was the niece of Kublai Khan, and relished the military life and loved combat. She even impressed Marco Polo who described her as so strong and brave that in all of her father's army no man could out do her in feats of strength. She never did marry. She accompanied her father on all of his compaigns.

1252-81 Politically Influential khanum Chabi of The Qagans (and Yuan in China)
She assisted her husband, Mongke Khan in his reign, and supported Tibetan monks who began converting the Mongol elite to Tibetan Buddhism. When Kublai conquered southern China, Chabi was influential in preventing revenge. She took measures to maintin the Song imperial family, to provide them with funds and a palace, not to enslave them or kill them. She too played a critical role in Mongol rule.

1252-60 Ruler Orqina Khatun of the Chagatiid Horde
Also ruler of Qara Khurtai (Kyrgzystan/Turkmenistan) and of the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang (China))

1257 Regent Dowager Khanum Ulaqci Hwarizum Sahil (The Golden Horde)
Also ruler of Boraqcin in Russia.

1332-33 Khanum Regnant Putashali of The Qagans (and Yan in China)

1470-circa 92 Khatun Mandughai (Mandugaya Setsen Khantun)
She was married to Grand Khan Mandaghol, the 27th successor of Jengis Khan. And regent for Greatkhan Dayan Qagani. 

1662-67 Regent Dowager Sultan Fatima of Kasimov (The Golden Horde)
1677-81 Sultan Regnant
In 1681 the state was occupied by the Russians

1911-19 De facto-Ruler Khanum Dondogulam of Mongolia
She was married to khan Dzhawdzandamba-chutuchta Oczirdara–chutuchta, the last khan of Mongolia before the monarchy was abolished in 1924.

Circa 1974-84 Politically Influential Anastasia Ivanovna Filatova
When her husband, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (1916-91), was Prime Minister 1954-74 she kept a low profile. But in their later years she reportedly had a say, for example, in matters of political appointments, which caused substantial resentment in the Mongolian ruling elites, and may have played a role in the Soviet decision to oust her husband from power in 1984. On the other hand, she is also remembered for her involvement in social programs in Mongolia, including the Children's Fund. The couple lived in exile in Moscow for the last part of their lives. Анастасия Ивановна Филатова lived 1920-2001.

Previously Sühbaataryn Yanjmaa was listed as Acting Head of State 1953-1954, but new research into the primary sources have uncovereed that this fact, that is listed in several sourses, is not correct. She was Vice-President of the Parliament, and more information about her can be found here:
Mongolia Parliament

Last update 15.10.15