Women in power 1250-1300

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


1250-1315 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Neuilly of Passava and Akova (Greece)

The county was known as Passe-avant at the time, and she succeeded her father, Jean II. She first married Guibert de Cors, then Guglielmo da Verona, Lord of that part of Eubœa around Oreos and thirdly to Jean de Saint-Omer of Thebes. She was sent as a hostage to Constantinople in 1262 to secure the release of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, whose niece she was. In Akova she was the heiress of her uncle Gautier II de Rozières, baron of Akova (Matagrifon) but was unable to claim her inheritance within 2 years and 2 days due to her absence and Prince Guillaume therefore declared her inheritance forfeit. Her third husband demanded the return of her inheritance, which was refused by a specially summoned parliament at Glarentza.  Prince Guillaume granted 1/3 of the barony to Marguerite as a concession, granting the other two-thirds to his own daughter Marguerite. She was daughter of Jean de Neuilly, Baron of Passava.


1250-96 Sovereign Princess Felicia dalle Carceri of Karysto and Sovereign Countess of The Second Triarchy of Euboea

Succeeded brother-in-law. From 1276-96 The Byzantine Empire ruled the state with her as vassal. She reigned jointly with Otto de Cicone. Succeeded by Licarius.


1250-54 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Châtillon of Tonnerre (France)

Successor of her brother, married to Archambaud IX de Bourbon, succeeded by daughter, Mathilde II, even though her grandmother, Mathilde I de Courtenay was still alive. Yolande  lived (circa 1221-1254).


1251-55 Regent Dowager Duchess Catherine de Limbourg of Lorraine (France)
1251-55 Reigning Dowager Lady of Bitche and Gondreville

After the death of her husband, 1225 Mathieu II (1193-1251), she became regent for their son, Ferry III (1240-1302), and her term in office was marked by warious conflicts with local magnates and cities. She was daughter of Countess Ermesinde de Luxembourg and  Count Waléran III de Limbourg, mother of 5 children, and lived (circa 1215-55).

Margaretha von Österreich

1251-67 Hereditary Duchess Margarethe von Babenberg of Österreich (Austria)

After her brother, Friedrich's death in 1246 she was the heir of Österreich and Steiermark, but her niece, Gertrud and husband, held the duchy in a titular capacity until she and her second husband, Premysl Otakar II of Bohemia (1230-78), prevailed in the fight for the succession. She was the widow of King Heinrich of Germany (1211-27-42) and in 1261 her second husband disowned her. Both her sons predeceased her. She lived (1204-67). 


After 1251 Mahamandalesvara Ganapamba of Guntur (India)

Initially Joint sovereign with her husband, her title after 1251 indicates an individual reign. She was daughter of emperor Ganapati in Andhra, who was succeeded by her older sister, Rudradeva, who reigned from 1259.


Circa 1251-before 98 Sovereign Lady Marchesina Ghisi of Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos (Greece)

Succeeded her father, Geremia Ghisi, the Lord of Andros. Married to Lorenzo Tiepolo who was elected Doge of Venice in 1268. Her sister, Isabetta was Heiress of the island of Amorgos. 


Circa 1251-? Sovereign Lady Isabetta Ghisi of Amorgos (Greece)

She succeeded her father, Geremia Ghisi, the Lord of Andros. Married to her first cousin, Filippo Ghisi. Her sister, Marchesina Ghisi, inherited the Lordships of Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos


1251-87 Politically Influential Princess Eufemia of Poland Minor of Oppeln-Ratibor (Opole-Racibórz) (Poland)

Politically active during reign of her husband Duke Władysław I of Opole. The daughter of Władysław Odonic, Duke of Małopolska and Jadwiga, she was mother of 5 children, and lived (1239-87).

Sorgaqtani Beki Khanum

1251-52 Politically Influential Dowager Khanum Sorghaghtani Beki of The Qagans of the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang), of Qara Khitai (Covering present day's China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)

As the daughter-in-law of Chinggis Khan, she pointed out that future khans ought to be Chinggis' direct descendants. The powerful nobles quickly sided with her against the regent, Khanum Oghul, and her eldest son Mongke emerged as victor. He was enthroned in 1251, setting in place the accession of the future rulers of the Mongolian Empire through the Tolui line. Throughout the first year of her son's rule, her influence and teaching was felt. She had ensured that her sons received proper training and the skills in combat and administration necessary to rule empires. Although she herself was illiterate, she gave them an education. Understanding what Khubilai Khan would need to rule China, she introduced him to the concepts of Confucian thought. Herself she was a Nestorian Christian who patronized a variety of foreign religions. She was daughter of Jakha Gambu Khan of the Kerate Tribe. She (d. 1252).


1251-? Warrior Princess Khutulun of The Qagans in the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang), of Qara Khitai (Covering present day's China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)

The niece of Kublai Khan, and relished the military life and loved combat. She even impressed Marco Polo who described her as so strong and brave that in all of her father's army no man could out do her in feats of strength. She never did marry. She accompanied her father on all of his campaigns.

Orogqina Khatun

1252-61 Regent Dowager Khanum Organa Hatum of the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang), of Qara Khitai (China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)

Also known as Oroqina Khatun or Orqina Khatum, she was head of the Ghafa Sid Horde (or Qara Khitai/ Chagataiid Horde) and ruled over a vast territory after the death of Qara Hulegu as successor of Qara Hulegu, who reigned 1247-52 and 1252. She was succeeded by Khan Alughu. She was a Nestorian Christian and was often mentioned as a great benefactor of the Christian faith by contemporary Western historians.


Circa 1252/53 Sovereign Countess Sophie von Ravensberg in Friesland (Germany)

Left the county to the Bishop of Utrecht.


1252-5.. Regent Dowager Princess Lucienne de Cacammo-Segni of Antiochia and Tripoli (Lebanon)

Reigned in the name of her son Boemond VI (1237-75), until she was removed from the regency. But her son was weak and she continued to be influential during his reign, and she managed to maintain the influence of her Roman favourites - much to the consternation of the Barons. Her sister, Plaisance, was regent of Cypern. Lucienne was daughter of Grafen Paolo von Cacammmo-Segni and the grandniece of Pope Innocence III.

Khanum Chabi

1252-81 Politically Influential Khanum Chabi of The Qagans Yuan (Mongolia and China)

Assisted her husband, Mongke Khan in his reign (1251-61), and supported Tibetan monks who began converting the Mongol elite to Tibetan Buddhism. When Kublai conquered southern China, Chabi was influential in preventing revenge. She took measures to maintain the Song imperial family, to provide them with funds and a palace, not to enslave them or kill them.


1253-61 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Plaisance de Antiochia of Cyprus
1257-61 (†) Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in Acre (Israel)

At the death of her husband, Henri of Lusignan, her son Hugh II was only a few months old and she claimed the regency. The High Court of Cyprus confirmed her in this position, but the Barons in the mainland, in Akkon (what remained of the former Kingdom of Jerusalem) demanded that she showed up herself before they would confirm her as regent. Lord Jean d'Ibelin of Arsuf was bailiff in Jerusalem and she contemplated marrying his son. In 1258 she tried to strengthen her position and arrived in Tripoli with her son. The High Court of the Kingdom assembled, and her brother, Boemond tried to be accepted as heir to the throne of Cyprus in the absence of, grandson of Emperor Frederik II and Queen Maria of Jerusalem, but this was rejected and the royal family was drawn into the civil war between the Genoese, Venetians, Hospitallers and the Templars. A majority was in favour of Plaisance's regency, and she returned to Cyprus after having reappointed Jean d'Ilbelin as bailiff. She was daughter of Boemond V of Antiochia and Lucienne de Cacammo-Segni, and lived (1236-61)


1253-5.. Regent Dowager Princess Marguerite de Dampierre-Bourbon of Navarra and Champagne (Spain and France)

Following the death of her husband, Thibaut, who succeeded his father as Count of Champagne and mother, Queen Blanca, as king of Navarra, Marguerite was regent for her son Thibaut II (also Thibaud V de Champagne). She (d. 1256).

Unnamed Indian Maharani

1253-82 Rani Regnant Sri Uma Devi of Travancore (India)

The Kulusekhara Dynasty of Travancore (or Tiruvankur) is of very ancient lineage, tracing its origins to the Royal House of Vanad and dating from 1100 AD. They attained considerable power during the reign of Ravi Varma Kulasekhara, during the early years of the fourteenth century. Marco Polo claimed to have visited his capital at Quilon, a centre of commerce and trade with China and the Levant.

Queen Eleanorof Provence of England

1253-54 Keeper and Governor Queen Eleanor de Provence of England (06.08-29.05)

Appointed to "keep and govern the realm of England and the lands of Wales and Ireland", with the counsel of Richard, earl of Cornwall, when her husband since 1236, Henry III, was away in France to defend his territories in Gascogne. She was advised by a Council, but she was in charge of the government, even when giving birth to a daughter in November. Eleanor was very influential during her husband's reign. Her determined resistance to baronial reform and her key part in bringing about the fall of Simon de Montfort's government invite new appraisal. After her husband's death in 1271 she was the only person in the realm anointed to the royal estate, she gave her consent to the breaking of the old seal and making of the new and the declaration of the new king, Edward I's peace, but she did not act as regent in the period until Edward returned to England. As a widow she was in control of her big dowry in Amesbury. In 1286 she entered a convent, but was still consulted by her son, Edward I, from time to time. She was daughter of Raymond Bergengar, count of Provence and Beatrice of Provence. Her sister Marguerite was married to Louis IX of France, Sancha to Richard, Earl of Cornwall and the youngest Beatrice to Charles, Count d'Anjou. The youngest sister inherited Provence. Eleanor was mother of nine children of whom four survived to adulthood. She lived (1217/23-91).


1253-59 Regent Dowager Countess Cecilia del Balzo of Savoy, Moriana and Chablais, Aosta and Susa (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Amedeo IV, Count of Savoia, Moriana and Chablais, Prince-Bailiff of the Duchy of Aosta and Duke of Aosta, Marquis of Susa, Marquis in Italy and Imperial Vicar in "All of Italy", she was regent for her son, Bonifacio I (1244-63) in all his territories. Her stepdaughters, Beatrice and Margherita were invested with a number of lordships from the family possessions. (1275).


1253-59 Lady Beatrice di Savoia of Busca, Roncaglia, Fontanile and Scarnafiggi  (Italy)

Oldest daughter of Count Amedeo IV of Savoy and his first wife, Anne di Borgogna, and was first married to Manfredo III Marchese di Saluzzo and then to Manfredi I Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily. Her half-brother, Bonifacio I, was Count of Savoy etc. (1244-53-63). She (d. 1259).


1253-54 Lady Margherita di Savoia of delle Valli di Matthie, Collegno e Pianezza (Italy)

Like her sister she was invested with a number of Lordships after the death of their father, Count Amedeo IV of Savoy. She was married to Bonifacio II Marchese del Monferrato (d. 1253), and (d. 1254).


1253 Hereditary Countess Adelheid von Tirol (Austria)

Daughter of Count Albrecht IV and Uta von Fronthausen, her husband Meinhard III von Görtz became Count of Tirol. She died (1275/79).


1253-1305 Countess Abbess Margarete I von Plessen of Gandersheim (Germany)

The protection by a Marshall of the chapter (Schutzvogtei) ended in 1259, and the chapter of the realm thereby reached the height of its power. Margarete I was born as "Edle Frau" or Noble Lady.


1253-60 Reigning Abbess-General Elvira Fernández of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

By the favour of the king, she was invested with almost royal prerogatives, and exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than fifty villages.

Unnamed Yugoslav Queen

1254-63 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna of Mačva (Serbia)

In the Middle Ages Macva was part of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Serbia. During the Hungarian rule the region was territory of several powerful bans.


1254-62 Sovereign Countess  Mahaut II de Dampierre of Tonnerre
1257-62 Sovereign Countess of Auxerre, and Nevers, Dame de Bourbon, Perche-Goët, Montjoy, Thorigny, Broigny, et de Saint-Aignan, Baroness
de Donzy (France)

Also known as Mathilde II, she was daughter of Yolande de Châtillon-sur-Marne  and Archambault IX de Dampierre, Seigneur de Bourbon - Count and Countess of Tonnerre. She succeeded her grandmother, Mahaut I, (Countess of Nevers 1199, Countess of Auxerre and Tonnerre 1219) in the other possessions, and was joint ruler with her husband Eudes de Bourgogne (d. 1269). After her death in 1262, her husband administered the counties until his death, and after that they remained vacant until her three daughters received their inheritance in 1273. Alix de Bourgogne became Countess of Auxerre; Yolande became Countess of Nevers and Marguerite Countess of Tonnerre. Mahaut lived (1249-62).


1255-57 Regent Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (or the Khanate of Kipchak) (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan)

When her husband, Batu, who was khan (1227-55), died his son and heir, Sartaq, had gone to pay court to Grand Khan Mongka, his father's friend. But he died before he could return home to the Khanate of Kipchak. Mongka nominated the young prince Ulagci, who was either the brother or son of Sartaq and she became regent of the Mongol tribe (The Golden Horde) in West Turkistan, roughly covering present day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.


1255-70 Hereditary Countess Margaretha von Hohenstaufen of Altenburg, Zwickau, Chemnitz etc.  (Germany)

Daughter of Emperor Friedrich II Hohenstaufen and Isabella of England. She married Albrecht II von Thüringen, who committed adultery with Kunigunde von Eisenberg. Margaretha escaped to Frankfurt where she died after 6 weeks. She lived (1241-70).


1255.... Regent Dowager Duchess Catherine van Limburg of Haute-Lorraine (Ober-Lothringen) (France)

As widow of Duke Matthias II, she was regent for her son, Friedrich III (1238-1303). Her rule was marked by the fightings between Bar, Luxembourg and Champagne who all claimed the lordship of Ligny and she also engaged in fighting with Neufchatel in Switzerland. In 1255 her son was declared free of her guardianship, and she died shortly after. She was daughter of Walram IV of Limburg-Luxemburg and Ermensinde II of Luxembourg, lived (circa 1215-circa 1255).


1255 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

The Ecclesiastical Territory included the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.


1255-1269 Princess-Abbess Machtild III von Wunnenberg of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

Member of a noble family, which held lordships in both Switzerland and Germany.


1256-98 Margravine Regnant Isabella van Luxembourg of Namour/Namen (Belgium)

Daughter of Hendrik V and Marguerite de Bar and succeeded after a succession between her father and Guy de Dampierre, her later husband and they co-ruled the Margravate. Mother of three children, and lived (1247-98).

An unnamed Mongolian Khanum of a Principality in Persia

1257-82 Regent Dowager Sultan Turhan Hatun 'Ismat ad-Duyan Wa’l-Din of Qutlug Khan (Iran)

Also known as Qutlug or Kutlugh, she ruled as regent for son Sultan Haggag (Hağğağ) until 1267, and afterwards alone. She had the khutba (prayer for the sovereign) proclaimed in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate reign. She was deposed by Ahmad Teguder and replaced by her stepson as ruler of Qutluq Khan or Kirman. Her daughter, Padisha, later reigned the Kingdom of Kirman.


1257-80 Dame Margaretha de Brabant of Mechelen and Antwerpen (Belgium)

Also known as Marguerite, she was second daughter of Duke Jean III de Brabant and married to Louis de Male, count of Flanders, Nevers und Rethel. After the Brabrandian succession-war she got the title of Dame de Mechelen and Antwerpen. She was heiress-presumptive of Limburg and Brabant after her sister, Duchess Jeanne. Mother of Margaretha II de Male, who succeeded her aunt. She lived (1323-80).


1257-59 Reigning Abbess Kühnheit Pinzinger of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The chapter had been placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany in 1002 and was granted royal protection and, immunity.


1257-64 Reigning Abbess Bertha de Augea of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter was a major landowner and also held lower jurisdiction in a number of surrounding villages.

1258-66 Regent Dowager Countess Aleid van Holland of Holland and Zeeland (The Netherlands)
1280-84 Regent of Hainault (Belgium)

Also known as Aleydis or Aleid van Avesnes. Even though his mother was still alive, she became regent for her nephew Floris V after the death of her brother, Willem II. Another nephew, Henri III of Brabant, was joint regent until his death in 1261. Her rule was opposed by her brother Floris and and Countess Margaretha van Vlaanderen, and she sought help by Otto II van Gelre, but he deposed her instead. After that Floris V took over the government in 1266 he made a deal with her over her dowry and continued to seek advice by her. Her son Jan II of Hainault became count of Holland 1299 after having been regent for Floris V's son Jan I (b. 1284-96-99). She was daughter of Floris IV, Count of Holland (1210-1234), and Machteld Duchess van Brabant (circa 1200-1267), and had been married to Jan I, graaf van Avesnes (d. 1257), and lived (circa 1230-84).

Margrethe Sambiria

1259-66 Regent Dowager Queen Margrethe Sambiria of Denmark
1266-82 Reigning Dowager Lady of Estonia and Virland and of Lolland-Falster

Also known as Margrethe Sprænghest, she was regent for her son Erik 5. Klipping after the death of her husband, Christoffer I. She fought against the powerful Archbishop Jakob Erlandsen. In 1261 she and her son were taken prisoner in Germany. The next year she returned together with Albrecht of Braunshweig and Erlandsen left the country. She managed to persuade Pope to accept the idea of female succession to the Danish throne, though not to her daughters having succession-rights before male relatives in other lines. Estonia was her dowry which she controlled from Lolland-Falster another Dowry in the South of Denmark. Remained influential to her death. She was daughter of Duke Sambor I of Pomerania and Mechtilde of Mecklenburg.  lived circa (1230-82).

1259 Regent Princess Rudradeva of Kakatiyas (India)
1262-95/96 Rani Regnant 

Originally named Rudramba, she was also known as Rani Rudrama Devi or Rudramadevi, and was the eldest daughter of Emperor Ganapati in Andhra. She was formally designated as a son through the ancient Putrika ceremony and given the male name of Rudradeva and declared the queen-designate. She was trained in horse riding, fighting and military tactics. After her father's death, she ruled her empire ably, winning battles. She was succeeded by grandson, Ptatapa who had been co-ruler since before 1293. Her sister Ganapamba was the joint sovereign of Guntur with her husband. After 1251 the sister was titled Mahamandalesvara, indicating individual reign.


1259-? Reigning Abbess Jutta of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not known how long time she reigned but Gertrud II who took over as head of the state in 1265.


1259-61 and 1271-73 Reigning Abbess Wilburg von Lobsingen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Possibly Acting Head of the State in 1257. Her family, the nobles von Lobsingen, had been in charge of the castle of Lobsingen for four generations from 1133 until 1277.

An unnamed Mongolian Khanum of a Principality in Persia

1260-62 Regent Dowager Princess Turhan Hatun of Banu-Salgar (Iran) 

In 1260 the Mongol Empire was fragmented into four states: The Golden Horde in the West, Il-Khans in Persia, The Chagatai Empire in Mongolia, and Kublai Khan in China. The Mongols in Persia were further divided into a number of smaller states in addition to the Il-Khans. One of them was Banu-Salgar.


1260-1300 Sovereign Viscountess Alix I de Dreux of Chateaudun, Dame de Mondoubleau and Saint Calais (France)

Succeeded mother, Clémence de Chateaudun, and reigned under the regency of her uncle, Simon de Dreux, the brother of her father, Robert de Dreux. She married Raoul de Clermont, Seigneur de Nesle, who died in battle 1302. She was succeeded by her only daughter, Alix II, and lived (1255-1300).


1260/70 Regent Dowager Countess Béatrix de Savoie of Viennois, d'Albon, Grenoble and Gap (France)

Following the death of her husband, Guigues VII, Dauphin de Viennois, Comte d'Albon et Grenoble (circa 1225-1269/70) she was regent for son, Jean. She was Dame de Faucigny in her own right and lived (circa 1237-1310).


circa 1260-65 Sovereign Countess Adélaïde de Brabant of Boulogne (France)

When her cousin, Mahaut II de Dammartin, died without direct heirs, the Parlement de Paris decided in her favour among the various possible heirs. She was daughter of Mathilde de Boulogne and Henri I de Brabant and widow of Guillaume X de Clermont, comte d'Auvergne and her son Robert, Comte de Auvergne (circa 1225-47-77) became co-ruler in her lifetime and succeeded upon her death. She lived (circa 1190-1265).


1260-1314 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Margarete von von Are-Hostaden of the County of Hückeswagen in Berg (Germany)

Wife of Adolf IV. von Berg (1246-59). Daughter of Count Lothar I von Are-Hochstaden and Mathilde von Vianden, mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1214-1314).


1260-75 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis I von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud, she was daughter of Count Heinrich I of Anhalt and Irmgard von Thüringen.


1260-62 Reigning Abbess-General Eva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Like Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


1261-67 De Facto Ruler Queen Maria Laskarina of Hungary in Croatia and Dalmatia

Married to King Bela IV of Hungary (1235-70), she used much of his reign trying to curtail the power of the magnates and set out to recover the crown lands his father had given to supporters. Confronted by the menace of the Mongol invasion, he sent unheeded appeals to Pope Gregory IX and Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II, but he was defeated in 1241. Returning after the withdrawal of the invaders, he repopulated the country by inviting foreign colonization. Bela's long struggle with Ottocar II, king of Bohemia, for Austria and Styria ended in defeat in 1260. His last years were disturbed by the rebellion of his son, King Stephen V (1270-72), who forced him to share the kingdom. Maria was involved in the struggle and was de-facto ruler of parts of the kingdom. She was born as Princess of Nicaea and (d. 1270). 

Queen Kunigunde of Bohemia

1261-85 Politically Influential Queen Kunigunda Rostislavna of Kiev of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

A dominant force during the reign of her husband, King Otakar II of Bohemia, who had dicored his first wife, Margrethe von Habsburg who was unable to have children. Kunigunda was especially influential when it came to the politics towards Hungary. After his death she tried to convince both King Rudolf von Habsburg and Otto V. von Brandenburg, who had been named guardians for her son Vaclav (1271-1305), that her late husband had designated her as guard and regent of the realm. She made a truce with Rudolf, but Otto took her and her son prisoner and took control over Bohemia. Rudolf attacked Otto and she was released together with her son, and was in charge of only the province surrounding Prauge. In 1284 she married Count Zawisch von Falkenstejn and Rozmberk, who acted as the real ruler after Vaclav was released from the regency in 1283 at the age of 12. Kunigunde was daughter of Grand Prince Rostislaw II of Kiev and Anna of Hungary, and lived (circa 1245-85). 


1261-63 Regent Dowager Princess Terken Khatun of Fars (Iran)

After the death of her husband, Atabeg Sa'd II bin Abi Bakr bin Sa'd bin  Zangi, she was duly confirmed by ruler of Fars by the Ilkhan Hülegü. She then married a kinsman, presumably as part of some now forgotten dynastic pact, but he killed her in a drunken frenzy and subsequently rebelled against the Ilkhan. After his defeat and death in 1263/64, Hülegü nominated her infant daughter, Abish Khatun to be the ruler of Fars.


1261-82 Sovereign Countess Marguerite I of Bourgogne (France)

Succeeded son of her sister Jeanne II. Marguerite I married Louis II, Count of Flanders. The husbands of her daughter, Marguerite: Philippe de Rouvre and Philippe de France were Dukes of Bourgogne in the same period. 


1261-circa 64 Hereditary Countess Heilwig von Tecklenburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Otto I. von Tecklenburg and Mechthild von Holstein-Schauenburg and married to Otto II von Bentheim-Tecklenburg (d. circa 1279). Her oldest son was Otto III of Tecklenburg, the second Ekbert I. of Bentheim and her daughter Gertrud was Abbess of Metelen from 1287


1261-62 Reigning Abbess Tutta IV von Putingen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

At the time Regensburg was the major city of Germany and the seat of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1261-82 Reigning Abbess Sara de Mernis of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

The abbey came under the sovereignty of France as part of "French Flanders".


1262-73  Reigning Abbess Gertrud II von Stein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Bavarian freiherrliche (free lord) family.


1262-88 Sovereign Countess Agnes de Dampierre of Bourbon (France)

Succeeded sister, Mahaut II and reigned jointly with husbands Jean de Bourgogne (d. 1268) and Robert I d'Artois. Succeeded by daughter Béatrix de Bourgogne. 


1262-90 Sovereign Countess Alix de Bourgogne of Auxerre (France)

Youngest daughter of Mahaut II and succe she was joint ruler with husband Jean I de Châlons, sire de Rochefort (1243-76-90-1309), who was succeeded by their son, Guillaume de Châlon-Auxerre, after her death. Alix lived (1251-90).


1262–Circa 1270 Regent Dowager Duchess Perejasława Halicka of Mazowsze
1270 –76/79 Co-Ruler of Mazowsze (Poland)

After the death of her husband Duke Siemowit I of Masovia, she was regent for sons Bolesław II and Konrad II and afterwards joint ruler with them. She was daughter of king Daniel of Halicz (in present day Ukraine). (d. 1283).


1262-... Sovereign Countess Grapela dalle Carceri of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Succeeded by Gaetano.


1262-93 Sovereign Lady Isabelle de Reviers of The Isle of Wight (United Kingdom)

Other versions of her surname were de Redvers or de Vernon. She succeeded brother. After the death of her husband, William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, she was styled Countess of Albemarle and Devon and Lady of the Isle of Wight. Her chief residence was Carisbrooke Castle. She was mother of 3 sons, John, Thomas and William, and 2 daughters, Alice and Aveline, who survived her sister and the brothers. King Edward I negotiated the purchase of the Island with Isabella, who sealed the conveyance on her deathbed, but its validity was questioned in parliament. Edward eventually managed to purchase the Island for the sum of 6.000 marks and appointed wardens over it.


1262-.. Princess-Abbess Mathilde IV von Hardenberg of Essen (Germany)

Succeeded by Agata, or Hemelburg von Hardenberg, but it is not known when.


1262-66 Reigning Abbess-GeneralUrraca Alfonso of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

In virtue of her office as Abbess she was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


1263-64 Regent Dowager Princess Isabella de Soissons of Acre (Lebanon)  

Reigned in the name of her son, Conradin. Her mother, Alix de Champagne was regent of Jerusalem (1243-46).


1263-64 (†) Regent Princess Isabella of Cyprus

When Queen Plaisance of Cypern died in 1261 her son Hugo II was eight years old, at first Isabella's son was appointed regent because the Supreme Court thought a man would be a better regent than a woman, but in 1263 Isabella and her husband, Henri de Poitou of Antiochia  (d. 1276), came to Cyprus and the nobles paid homage to her as regent, but she died the following year. As the younger daughter of King Hugo I Lusignan of Cypern and Alice de Champagne-Blois she was Heiress Presumptive of Jerusalem, since her mother was the daughter and Heiress Presumptive of King Henri I of Jerusalem and Princess Isabella d'Anjou of Jerusalem. Isabella's oldest son, Hugo III, was king of Cyprus (1235-84) and her daughter, Marguerite Titular-Princess of Antiochia and Lady of Tyros and lived (before 1244-1308) and married to Jean de Montfort, Lord of Tyros (d. 1289). Isabella lived (circa 1215-64).

Persian Woman

1263-75 Atabeg Regnant Abisha Hadud Khatun of Fars (Iran)
1283-87 Governor of Fars

Also known as Abish Khatun or Aubee Khatton, she was nominated as ruler by the Ilkhan of the Khwarazham Empire in Persi, after her mother, Terken Khatun, was killed. Her name was read in the khutha and struck on the coinage. In 1274, when she was about fifteen, she was taken to the Ilkhan's ordu (Court), and married to Tash-Möngke (Mengü Temür), a younger son of Hülegü This was a marriage, forbidden in Islamic law, between a Muslim woman and a shamanist, but presumably the will of the Ilkhan transcended all other considerations. She became his chief wife and had two daughters by him, Kürdüjin and Alghanchi. When her husband was sent as governor to Fars, she was retained in the ordu, but 1283, the new Ilkhan, Ahmad Tegüder (1282-84), recalled him from Shiraz and appointed her in his place. Her financial recklessness, coinciding with a drought throughout Fars, meant that she defaulted on her revenue payments, so that Ahmad Tegüder's successor, Arghun (1284-91), ordered her to appear at the ordu. Perhaps relying on the good offices of Öljei Khatun, Hülegü's widow, to protect her from the Ilkhan's wrath, she declined to go and behaved outrageously toward the officials sent to supersede her. She was eventually forced to capitulate and submitted to the Ilkhan (Öljei Khatun did indeed intercede for her), dying at the ordu in 1287, after having lived (circa 1269-87).


1263-91 Sovereign Countess Marie of Limoges (France)

Succeeded father Gui VI le Preux and reigned jointly with husband Duke Arthur de Bretagne (from 1305). He was succeeded in Limonges by their son, Jean I in 1301.


1264 and 1274-76 Regent Dowager Empress Xie Qingdau of China

Following the death of her husband, Emperor Lizong (1224-1264) she became regent for his nephew, Emperor Duzong (1264-1274). After his death she again took over the leadership, this time for his son, Gongdi (1274-76). The Mongols conquered parts of the territory and massacred the population and in order to prevent further bloodshed she decided to surrender. The terms were negotiated over three months and on February 21, 1276, the young Song emperor assembled a few officials to make obeisance to the North in the Yuan capital Dadu (Beijing). The Song imperial family was taken captive. Due to serious illness, Xie left Hangzhou several months later. The entourage traveled for two months and arrived at Dadu from where they journeyed to the Yuan emperor's summer residence. There, they were received by a grand feast and stripped of their titles. Xie was given tax-free property in Dadu where she lived until her death She lived (1210-1276).


1264-82 Sovereign Dame Isabella of Beirut (Lebanon)
1277-82 Dame de la Roche-sur-l’Ognon

Eldest daughter of John II of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut and Alice de la Roche of Athens. As a child she was married to child-King of Cyprus, Hugh II, who died 1267. She had an affair with Julian of Sidon, and a papal bull was issued urging her to marry, but as an act of defiance, Isabella gave herself and her lordship to an Englishman Hamo L'Estrange. On his death in 1273, she put herself and her fief under the protection of Barbers. Hugh of Cyprus tried to carry her off. Isabella returned to Beirut, but this time with a Mameluk guard installed to protect her. On the death of Barbers, Hugh resumed control of the fief. Isabella married twice more (Nicholas L'Aleman and William Barlais) before her death. Succeeded by her sister Eschiva, wife of Humphrey of Montfort. She lived (circa 1245/50 or 1252-82).


1264-77 Sovereign Dame Alice de la Roche of Roche-sur-l’Ognon (Lebanon)

Succeeded her husband, Jean II de Ibelin (1264) and was succeeded by daughter Isabella.


1265-80 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Bourgogne of Nevers (France/Belgium)

Daughter of Eudes de Bourgogne and Mahaut II de Bourgogne of Auxerre, Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre, and reigned jointly with her first husband Jean Tristan de France, Count de Nevers and Valois (1250-70), the son of king Louis IX (1215-70) and Marguerite de Provence. After Jean's death she reigned jointly with her second husband, Robert de Dampierre, Count de Flanders (1280-1332). Yolande's sisters succeeded in Auxerre and Tonnerre.


1265-97 Sovereign Baroness and Dame Isabelle of Beaujeu (France)

The daughter of Humbert V, who was killed in Egypt 1250, and Marguerite de Bauge, Dame de Miribel (d. ca 1252), she succeeded her brother, and was married to Count Simon II de Semur-en-Brionnais, seigneur de Luzy; and Renaud d'Albon, Count de Forez. Another of her sisters, Sibylle, was Dame de Belleroche. Isabelle (d. 1297).


1265-?  Reigning Abbess Gertrud II of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Her background is not known.


1265-76 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Dreux (de Brenne) of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the double-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess.


1266-70 Regent Dowager Princess Mathilde von Braunschweig- Lüneburg of Anhalt-Aschersleben
1275-95 Countess-Abbess Mechtildis I of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Before his death her husband, Heinrich II the Fat von Anhalt-Aschersleben, had named her regent in the event of his death. In the beginning she used the name "Mechtild, comitissa Ascharie et princeps in Anehalt" in the documents, the title of "princeps" soon went to her sons, Otto I and Heinrich III, and thereafter she did not issue decrees, she only accepted the decisions of her sons. In 1275 she became Abbess of Gernrode and Frose, and continued as a mild and just ruler. Daughter of Duke Otto I "the Child" of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (1204-13-52) and Matilda of Brandenburg (d.1261), she was mother of 7, resigned as Sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Territory, and lived (ca.1230-ca.1297/98).


1266-96 Countess Lucina de Candida Pistore of Malta, Lady of Candia

Also known as Lukina, she was daughter of Guglielmo de Candia Pistore who ruled 1285-1300, but was replaced by Ruggiero de Flohr, Vice Admiral of Sicily as Count in 1296. She then held the county as a fief of the Aragonese ruler of Sicily . She was married to Raimondo de Moncada and the mother of at least two sons and at least one daughter.


Circa 1266-79 Princess-Abbess Agnes de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

Daughter of Count Heinrich III von Salm and Judith de Lorraine.


1266-71 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Martinez of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of the Royal Abbey was one of the only abbesses in the history of the Catholic church to hold quasi-episcopal powers.                        


1266-70 Abbess Nullius Dameta Donna Paleologina of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

First abbess of the chapter that have been given to the congregation of Cistercian Nuns, that had fled from Greece. The abbey had originally been founded in 889 as monk cloister placed under direct papal protection in 1110. Her position as Abbess Nullius - or "Badesse Mitrate" was confirmed 1267 by Pope Clemente IV. Another version of her surname is Paleologo, and she might have been a member of the Byzantine Imperial Family.


1266 Reigning Abbess Hadwig of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Possibly the same as Hedwig, who is mentioned as ruler 1273/74.


1267-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Euphrosine von Opplen of Dobrzyń and Kujawy-Łęczyca (Poland)

Also known as Eufrozyna Opolska. After the death of her husband, Duke Kazimierz of Kujawy, she became regent for her three sons: Władysław I Łokietek (since 1320 king of Poland), Siemowit and Kazimierz. 1275 she married Duke Mściwój II of Pomorze Gdańskie - they divorced in 1288). She was the daughter of Wiola and Duke Kasimir von Ratibor-Opplen (Kazimierz of Racibórz-Opole), and lived (1228/30-1292/94).


1267-circa 77 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I de Brugelette of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Apparently the position of Princess-Abbess was vacant 1265-67.


1267-70 Sovereign Princess Maria of Lemnos (Stalimene) (Greek Island-State)

Held out against the Byzantines for 3 years after death of her husband, Paolo Navigajoso, who had been appointed mega dux by the Latin Emperor and held the island of Lemnos as a fief. And she resisted Byzantine attempts to reconquer it before she left the island.


1268-77 Sovereign Princess Maria de Antiochia-Poitiers of Acre, Titular Queen of Jerusalem (Israel)

Maria II was the daughter-daughter of King Almaric I of Jerusalem and pretender to the throne against Hugh III de Lusignan, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem. She ceded her claims to the king of Napoli. After Jerusalem fell to the Selsjuks the capital of the Latin Kingdom moved to Acre. 


1268-1310 Sovereign Countess Béatrix I of Charolais, Dame de Bourbon et Saint-Just (France)

Daughter of Jean II de Charolais (d. 1268) and Agnès, Dame de Bourbon (d. 1283) and married to Robert, Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.


1268-1310 Sovereign Baroness Beatrice de Savoie of Faucigny (France)

Succeeded her parents, Pietro II, Count of Savoy, Moriana and Chablais, Duke of Aosta, Marquis of Susa and Marquis in Italia, Count of Richmond etc and Baroness Agnese de Faucigny (heiress of Aimone I de Faucigny) who both died in 1268. During her first marriage to Guigues VII, Dauphin de Vienne, Count d’Albon, she became known as "The Grande Dauphine". After his death in 1261, she married Gaston VII Viscount dei Béarn (1225 -90). In 1309 she renounced her claims on the County of Savoy. She lived (1237-1310).


1268-81 Sovereign Lady Isabella van Brunesheim Tienen of Breda (The Netherlands)

Inherited the lordship after the death of her brother, Hendrik V (1250-54-68), and after her death her husband, Arnold van Leuven-Gaasbeek took over as Lord until he was succeeded by their son in 1287. Isabella lived (circa 1250-80).


1270-1308 Princess-Abbess Bertradis II of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her background is unknown, but she was probably member of a noble family of Harzen, perhaps daughter of the Count of Barby. In 1300 she sold the Neustadt outside Quedlinburg for 1.000 Mark Stendale Silver (stendalischen Silber) to the Counts of Regenstein because she lacked money. (d. 1308).

Unnamed Abbess

1270-98 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Wedtzikon of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

The Fürstäbtissin was the leading personality of her time, not only in the political but also in the cultural life of the City of Zürich. She introduced the Gothic building style. More than 140 documents carries her name and seal, with the introduction: „Allen dien die disen brief ansehent, künden wir, Elsebetha von gottes genaden Ebetissinne zu Zürich es Munsters vnd ouch der Samenunk…“ During her reign the Benediktine Abbey was at the heights of its powers and she gave right to print coins, she leased the customs office and was involved in the appointment of mayors. She also played an important role in the external politics of the city and 1273 she received King Rudolf von Habsburg in Zürich „with princely glitter“. She was daughter of Lord Ulrich von Wetzikon.


1270-72 Reigning Abbess Ita Truchsessin von Waldburg zu Rohrdorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Possible Great-aunt of Agathe Truchsessin von Meßkirch.


1270-79 Claimant Agnes von Baden of the Duchy of Österreich (Austria)

Only daughter of titular Duchess Gertrude von Österreich and Margrave Hermann VI von Baden, she was first married to Duke Ulrich III von Kärnten and after his death to Count Ulrich von Heunburg in 1269. The following year they claimed the Austrian inheritance trough her mother, as her brother, Friederich II von Baden, Titular Duke of Austria, had been beheaded in Napoli in 1268. Both King Ottokar of Bohemia and King Rudolf von Habsburg of Hungary forced her to resign her claims, but she continued her pressure and in the end she was given 6.000 Mark as compensation. She had no children and lived (1249-95).


1271-74 Sovereign Countess Mathilde von Saarbrücken (Germany)

According to a treaty her father, Simon III had made with the Bishop of Metz in 1227 first his oldest daughter Laurette and in event that she should die without heirs Mathilde should inherit the county. But Bishop Lorenz claimed that female succession did not apply for fiefs of the Prince-Bishopcy of Metz, and therefore he apparently refused to pay homage to her as Countess, and had her excommunicated. She was on good terms with Duke Friedrich von Lothringen, and he supported her in her fight, but the situation was not cleared by her death in 1274. First married to Lord Simon II de Commercy and secondly to Count Amadeus von Mömpelgard (d. 1271). She was succeeded by her oldest son, Simon IV (d. 1309). Her second son was Count Walther von Mömpelgard (d. 1306). Mathilde (d. 1274).


Until 1271 Sovereign Baroness Helena Angelina of Karytaena, Corfu etc. (Greece)

Second wife of Manfred Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily (d. 1266), whose daughter by the first marriage to Béatrice of Savoia was Constance, Queen of Sicily. Her father, Michel Ange, was Depot of Epirus. Her only daughter, Béatrice Hohenstaufen died young and niece, Isabelle II de Villehardouin, who was also Princess of Archaia etc., and was the daughter of her sister, Anne, succeeded her. Karytaena is situated in the central Peloponnesus, about 65 km. northwest of Mistra and ancient Sparta. She lived (1242-71).


1271-95 Politically influential Padshah Khatun of Fars (Iran)

Second daughter of Qutluqh Terken's sister and as the principal wife of the Ilkhan Abaqa she was well-placed to look after her mother's and Kirman's interests, and became involved in the intrigues of the last Qutlugh-Khanid contenders, eventually being strangled in 1295 by order of the Ilkhan Baydu for her murder of her half-brother, Soyurghatmish.

Before 1271-83  Princess-Abbess Herburgis von Ehrenfels of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Princess-Abbess was the superior head of the chapter, but the abbot or provost administered the estates of the clerical ladies, arranged the statues and appointed the prioress.


1271-73 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Diezof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Secular ruler of more then 60 lorships, towns and villages in Castilla and Léon, and head of a number of convents and parishes.


 1271-96 Abbess Nullius Isabella I of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Confirmed as "Abbassa Nullius di San Benedetto in Conversano" by Pope Gregorio X in 1273, who also confirmed the direct papal protection. She was in dispute with Grand-Vicar Stefano of Conversano.


1272-77 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabet Kumanac of Hungary

After the death of her husband King István V (Stephen) of Hungary (1270-72) Erzsebet was regent for their son, László IV of Hungary (1272-90), who was murdered. Rebellious vassals had kidnapped him at age ten from his father’s court. His minority was an alternation of palace revolutions and civil wars, in which she barely contrived to keep the upper hand. In this milieu Ladislaus matured precociously and was poorly educated, which greatly confined his personalities as rough and reckless. Her daughters Katalin (Ca 1256-after 1314) was married to king Stepan IV Dragutin of Serbia (d. 1316), Mária (ca 1257-1323) was married to King Charles II of Naples and Sicily - recognized as Queen in parts of the country 1290-92, the third daughter was married to the Tsar of Bulgaria, Erzsébet (1255-1326) first married Zavis von Rosenberg zu Falkenstein and secondly King Stepan Uros II Milutin of Serbia and the youngest daughter Ágnes (ca 1260-ca 1281) was married to Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos of Byzantium. She was daughter of Zayhan, a prince of the Turkish Nomadic Cuman tribe, which had been pushed into Hungary by the invasions of Chinghis-Khan, and lived  (1240-after 1290).


1272-77 De-facto in Charge of the Government Tsarina Maria Palaiologina Kantakouzene of Bulgaria
Regent Dowager Tsarina
According to George Pachymeres, she supported the military coup d'état of her uncle, Michael VIII Palaiologos, and the she prompted him to blind the legitimate Emperor Jean IV Laskaris. When Jean's sister, the Bulgarian tsarina Irene died 1268, her widower, Connstantin, he married Michael's niece Maria. Quarrels over the surrender of her promised dowry, the Black Sea ports of Mesembria and Anchialos, made her side with her husband against her uncle, and the Bulgarian government entered into an alliance with King Carlos I of Sicily who was planning a campaign against Michael VIII, who struck back, by marrying his illegitimate daughter Euphrosyne Palailogina to Nogai Khan of the Golden Horde, who pillaged Bulgaria in 1274. In the last years of his reign, her husband was partly paralyzed from a fall off his horse, and the government was firmly in her hands. She crowned their son Michael Asen II co-emperor soon after his birth, in about 1272. Her husband was killed during an uprising in 1277 lead by a swineherd named Ivaylo, who was able to extend his authority across much of the country, but the capital Tarnovo remained under the control of her and her son, the new tsar Michael Asen II. Her uncle then married his eldest daughter Eirene to Ivan Asen III, a descendant of Bulgaria's ruling dynasty living at the Byzantine court, and dispatched troops to place him on the throne. This caused her to marry Ivaylo, who became co-tsar in 1278 with her son, and he led a successful defense of the Balkan passes against the Byzantine campaigns and met with success against casual Mongol raids, but in 1279 a major Mongol army blockaded him in the fortress of Dorostolon on the Danube for three months. A rumor of his death caused panic in Tarnovo, where the nobility surrendered to a new Byzantine army and accepted Ivan Asen III as emperor. She was sent into exile together with her son to Byzantine, where she gave birth to a daughter, whose name is unknown. She was the second daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos and Eirene Komnene Palaiologina.


1272-?  Reigning Abbess Wilburgis von Leuchtenberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of the family of Landgraves of Leuchtenberg within Bavaria. It is not known how long she was in office but Ryssa I von Leuhtenberg reigned from 1286.


1273-99 Sovereign Countess Marguerite d'Anjou-Sicilie of Anjou, Maine and Perche (France)

Married to the French military leader, Charles de Valois the third son of king Philippe III. He was a military leader and dominated the reign in France of his nephew Louis X. When Pedro III of Aragón was excommunicated in 1284, Pope Martin IV made him king of Aragón and Sicily but he was defeated and in 1290 renounced his claim. In return he received Anjou and Maine as part of her dowry. During his second marriage to Catherine de Courtenay, Titular Empress of Constantinople, he unsuccessfully sought to obtain the crowns of the Byzantine and Holy Roman empires. His third wife was Mahaut de Châtillon-sur-Marne, Countess of St. Pol. (from 1344) Marguerite was daughter of Charles II of Sicily, Napoli and Jerusalem and Maria of Hungary, and among her 6 children was Philippe VI, who succeeded to the French throne in 1328. She lived (1273-99).


1273-80 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Bourgogne of Nevers (France)
Oldest daughter Mahaut II de Dampierre of Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre (1249-57-62) and Eudes de Bourgogne (d. 1269), she and her two sisters divided the inheritance in 1173. She first married Jean Tristan of France, Count of Valois (d. 1270), secondly Robert de Béthune, the future Count of Flanders. She was succeeded by her son Louis I (1280-1322), who married Countess Jeanne de Rethel.


1273-93 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Bourgogne of Tonnerre  (France)

Second daughter of Mahaut II de Dampierre, she was married to Charles d'Anjou, King of Sicily and Napoli, Count of Anjou, Maine and Tonnerre. In 1293 she left the county to her nephew, Guillaume de Châlon-Auxerre (1279-1304), son of her sister Alix. She lived (1254-93).


1273-87 Reigning Abbess-General María Gutiérrez IIof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of the Chapter also held the position of Abbess General of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile since 1189.


1273-76 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth I von Stauf of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

In another list of Abbesses of Niedermünster she is named Stauffin von Stauffenburg.


1273/74 Reigning Abbess Hedwig of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Could be the same as Hadwig.

1274-1305 Queen Regnant Juana I of Navarra, Countess of Champagne and Brie (Spain and France)

Also known as Jeanne, and at the age of 13 she was married to king Philippe V of France (1268-1314), who became king of Navarra by the right of his wife. She left him to reign in Navarra and stayed in Champagne, and at one time led an army against the Count de Bar when he rebelled against her. Mother of 7 children.  Her three surviving sons: Louis X of France, Philip V and Charles IV all became kings of France and Navarra, and her only surviving daughter, Isabelle, married king Edward II of England. She died under mysterious circumstances; one chronicler even accused her husband of having killed her. She lived (circa 1271-1305).

Blance d'Artois

1274-76 Regent Dowager Queen Blance d’Artois of Navarra and the Counties Troyes and Meaux
1274-84 Regent of the Counties of Champagne and Brie  (Spain and France)

After the death of her husband Henri I (1270-74), she was regent for daughter Juana I, and various powers, both foreign and from Navarra, sought to take advantage of the minority of the heiress and the weakness of the female regent. She left the administration of Navarra to King Philippe III of England after her marriage to Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245-1296), brother of Edward I of England, and they administered Champagne until Juana came of age in 1284. She was the daughter of count Robert I of Artois, and the granddaughter of Louis VIII of France, mother of four children with her second husband, and lived (circa 1248 -1300).

1274-76 Regent Dowager Queen Xi of Jiling (China)

Reigned for grandson Zhao Xian and died as a nun in Tibet in 1296. In 1276 Queen Yang became regent for her stepson. 


1275 Regent Dowager Princess Sibylle of Armenia of Antiochia and Tripoli (Syria)

When her husband, Boemond VI died, King Hugo, claimed the post of regent of Tripoli as the oldest adult of the family, but she had already taken over the regency for her 14 year old son, Boemond VII, according to the ancient traditions of the family. She evacuated her son to the court of her brother, Leo III of Armenia, and appointed Bishop Bartholomæus of Tortosa to reign the city in her name. Boemond died in 1287 and was succeeded by his sister, Lucia, but she lived in Italian Apulia, and the nobles and citizen of Tripoli were not keen on a foreign Princess as their ruler, so they offered Sibylle the County of Tripoli. She accepted and wrote Bartholomæus asking him to act as her representative, but the letter was intercepted, the nobles withdrew their offer, declared that the dynasty had been deposed and a Commune had taken it's place, but the following year Lucia arrived and took the position of Princess and Countess. Sibylle withdrew to her brother's court in Armenia. She was daughter of Queen Zabel of Armenia and King Hethum of Armenia and lived (circa 1240-90).


1275-80 Sovereign Countess Isabelle I de la Roche of Karythaena, Co-Heiress of Thebes (Greece)

On the death of her first husband,  Geoffroi de Briel de Bruyères. the lordship of Karytena escheated to Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, who then allowed her to retain half of it as her portion. Also known as Jezebel I, she reigned jointly with second husband, Hugues de Brienne, Count of Lecce from 1277. Mother of two children by her second husband. Today the he territory is known as Skorta and it is situated in Central Peloponnesus.


Until 1275 Co-Ruler Ballamahadevi of the Barahkanyapura Province in Karnataka (India)
1275-92 Regent

The province was situated in Barkur in the South Kanara District of Karnataka. She assisted her husband, Vira Pandyadeva, in administering his province from Barahkanyapura. After his sudden death she was regent for their minor son, Nagadevarasa. She is mentioned as mistress of the Western Sea.


1275 Reigning Abbess Ute of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter held the overlordship of 15 villages within it's territory and 3 outlying villages.

Violante de Aragón

1275-1300 Politically Active Queen Violante de Aragón of Castilla (Spain)

When her eldest son, Fernando de la Cerda, died suddenly, and her husband, Alfonso X of Castile, named their second son as heir instead of the sons of the Dowager Crown-Princess Blanche de France. Violante and her daughter-in-law escaped with the children to Aragon, where Viol ante’s brother was king. The two ladies tried to find supporters everywhere in Europe, and started to build up a political network by writing letters to Blanche's mother Marguerite de Provence, the French dowager queen, to other royals, to the pope and other important personalities. Finally, after negotiating, Violante returned home but never was really reconciled with her husband. Violante spent several years in Castile consecrating her life to pious works, but occasionally made her way back to the political scene supporting for
example her son Sancho, who had started a rebellion against her estranged husband, the king.
(d. circa 1300).

1275-1320 Politically Active Dowager Princess Blanche de France of Castilla (Spain)

After the death of her husband, the Castillian Heir, Prince Fernando de la Cerda, she started the fight to have her children; Alfonso de la Cerda and Ferdinando de la Cerda recognized as rightful heirs to the throne. She went in exile together with her mother-in-law, Violante de Aragón. She received open support from the queens and princesses, creating thus a kind of female network in politics. After Violante reconciled with her husband, Blanche continued her fight until her brother signed a peace treaty with king Sancho IV of Castile and recognised him as king. She was forced to ratify that treaty as well and then she retired to a French nunnery. She lived (1253-1323).

Chinese Lady

1276-79 Regent Dowager Empress Yang-shi of China (in Jiling in South China) (Southern Song Dynasty)

Her husband, Emperor Duzong had died in 1274 and was succeeded by a relative, Emperor Gongdi. The Mongols were threatening the capital and it was decided that the Emperor should remain with his mother and grandmother to either defend the capital or failing it, to negotiate the surrender terms. It was also decided that her son Zhao Shi and his half-brother, Zhao Bing (d.1279) should flee south to the sea with their mothers and their maternal uncles, Yang Chen and Yu Rugui. After Gongdi and the imperial court were captured and taken north to Dadu, the Mongol capital, the loyalist forces crowned her son as Emperor, in Fuzhou in June of 1276. He was only nine years old and she was named Empress Dowager and regent. When the Mongols threatened Fuzhou, the loyalists, under the command of Zhang Shijie (1236-1279) took the two young boys to the sea and sailed along the Guangzhou prefecture. In January 1278, a hurricane struck when they were offshore near present day Zongshan and destroyed the vessel that carried the boy emperor. Although he was rescued, he never recovered from the shock and died in May. Her late husband's youngest son was then crowned as Emperor Bingdi. He was then six years of age and she continued as regent. In March of 1279, the Mongols pressed the loyalists and Lu Xiufu (1238-1279) jumped into the sea, carrying the boy emperor, and committed suicide. Yang-shi, accompanied by Zhang Shijie, continued to search for possible surviving members of the royal family but she despaired and committed suicide by drowning herself in the sea. (d. 1279).


1276-1309 Sub-Queen Helena d'Anjou of Dioclea (Montenegro)

Succeeded Stephen and followed by Stephen Uros III of Decani


1276-1315 Baroness Regnant Marguerite de Villehardouin of Akova, Lady of... (Greece)

Widow of Isnard, Sire de Sabran she married Riccardo Orsini, Count of Kefalonia, Conte di Gravina 1284/91, Vicar General of Corfu 1286/89 amd appointed bailli of Achaia by Isabelle Princess of Achaia in 1297. She died in prison and was daughter of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia. She died in prison. 


1276-85 Reigning Abbess Hedwig Kropflin of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Head of the Benedictine convent in Bavaria, which was closely associated with Obermünster.


1276-84 Reigning Abbess Isabeau I Davoir of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Member of a French noble family.


1277-84 Opposition Leader Eirene Komnene Palaiologina in the Byzantine Empire (Greece)
Opposed to the union of the Orthodox and Roman churches organised by her brother, Emperor Mikhael VIII, and was arrested on his orders in 1277. She then became the focus of organised opposition from the Bulgarian court of her daughter Maria. When her husband, Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos died, she had become a nun as Eulogia. The daughter of Megas Domestikos Andronikos Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos and his wife Theodora Palaiologina, she lived (1218-84).


1277-1300 Opposition Leader Theodora Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzenen in the Byzantine Empire (Greece)
Like her mother, Eirene Komnene Palaiologina, shShe was imprisoned in 1277 for opposing Emperor Mikhael VIII's policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches. She was accused of "magical machinations against the emperor's health" and, according to Pachymeres, was tested by being put into a bag with some cats. After the accession of Emperor Andronikos II she was released. She restored the church of St Andrew of Crete at Krisis in Constantinople and lived in the convent there for the rest of her life, during which she amassed a library and acquired a reputation for learning. She wrote hagiographies of the 9th century Theophanes the Confessor and his brother Theodore. She made an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate with Alexios Philanthropenos who in 1295 rebelled in Asia Minor and was proclaimed emperor. Widow of Georgios Mouzalon and Ioannes Raul Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas. Her father was She was the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos, and she lived (1240-1300).


1277-? Princess-Abbess Aleide I van Beerbeke of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

It is not known how long her reign lasted, but Elisabeth II van Burget reigned until 1287.

1278-90 Sovereign Countess Leonor de Castilla of Ponthièu and Montreuil (France) 

Succeeded mother Jeanne de Dammartin (1239-78) and king Edward I of England (1239-72-1307) and thus the county was inherited by the kings of England. Also known as Queen Eleonor of Castille, she gave birth to sixteen children, six of whom survived into adulthood, but only two or three of whom outlived their parents. Her father was Fernando III of Castilla and Leon, and lived (1244-1290).


1278-88 Reigning Abbess Mathilde II von Waldeck of Herford (Germany)

Also known as Mechtild. Irmgard was elected as abbess in 1290.


1278-1316 Reigning Dowager Lady Mechthild von Brandenburg of her Dowry in Pommern-Wolgast (Poland/Germany)

After the death of her husband, Barnim I (circa 1218-29-78), she fought for years with her stepson, Bogislaw IV, over her dowry and a partition of the Duchy in favour of her sons. In 1295 the Estates forced him to give in, and he accepted a partition and gave up Stettin-Greifenhagen in favour of her son, Otto I. She (d. 1316)


1278-8.. Sovereign Marchioness Isabelle Pallavicini  of Bodonitza (Greece)

Also known as Jezebel, she succeeded her brother Urbertino and also inherited her elder sister Mabilia's Italian possessions in Parma. In the year of her succession she was requested by her new lord, Charles d'Anjou, Prince of Achaea, to do homage to his new vicar at Glarentsa. When the barons of the Principality of Achaea refused to do homage to the bailiff Galeran d'Ivry as vicar general, the primary reason was her absence, because she was their primus inter pares as the Marchionate was the highest ranking. She was already old at her accession and did not live long thereafter. She died childless and left open a succession dispute, which was eventually solved by the arbitration of William I of Athens, then acting bailiff of Achaea, in favour of her cousin Albert. She left a widower in Antoine le Flamenc.


1278-96 Sovereign Countess Alice dalle Carceri of The Third Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Reigned a part of the second largest island of Greece was divided into three parts, three Triarchies, each reigned by separate counts or countesses.


1278-79 Reigning Abbess Hedwig von Gutenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Probably member of the Staufian noble family and her brothers,  Konrad and Werner  were mentioned as witnesses to the foundation of the Chapter of Wald in 1212.


1279-1328 Sovereign Princess Beatrice of Euboea (Negroponte) (Greek Island-State)

Inherited the state after the death of her father.


1279-92 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Chatillon of Blois, Chartres, de Dunois, Dame de Châtillon, d'Avesness and de Crécy (France) 

Succeeded father Jean I de Châtillon, count of Blois and Chartres (1241-79). She married count Pierre d'Alençon, and since she had no children, she was succeeded by her German cousin Hugues de Châtillon, and (d. 1291/92).


1279-86 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I de Châtelon of Blois, Chartres and Dunois, Dame of Châteaurenault, Avesnes, Guise et Grécy (France) 

Successor of her father, Jean I and was married to Pierre I d’Alençon, who was also styled Count of Blois, son of King Louis IX of France and Marguerite of Provence. She received the County of Chartres from her father during his life; she later sold these lands to Philip IV of France in 1291. She ceded the lordship of Avesnes to her cousin Hugh before her death. When she died in 1292 the other titles were left to him too. She had 2 children who died young, and lived (1279-92). 

Unnamed Yoguslav Queen

1280-82 Reigning Dowager Duchess Erszebet of Maczva (Serbia) 

The Dukes of Macva in today's Vojvodina were allies of the Hungarian kings.


1280-84 Regent Dowager Queen Ingeborg Eriksdatter of Norway

After the death of her husband, Magnus the Lawmaker (1238-63-80) she acted as regent for her son, Erik II (1268-99). She was the first Norwegian Queen to be crowned and was daughter of King Erik IV Plougpenning of Denmark and Jutta of Sachsen, and lived (1244-87).


1280-1220 Sovereign Countess Sachette of Nikli (Greece)

Succeeded father, Hugues and co-ruled with husband Androuin de Villers.


1280-89 Sovereign Dame Marquritte of Lisarea and Morena (Greece)

Inherited the lordship after the death of her brother, Seigneur Guillaume, and reigned jointly with Payen de Sastenay. 


1280-82 Sovereign Duchess Ermengarde of Limbourg (Belgium)

Became ruler after the death father. After her death in 1283 her husband, Reinaud I can Geldre-Zupten engaged in a succession-war which was won by Jean van Brabant. 

1281-1301 Sovereign Countess Anne of Viennois and Dauphiné (France) 

Succeeded nephew, Jean I, and reigned jointly with husband, Humbert I de la Tour du Pin. Succeeded by husband, Jean II.  


1281-... Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Dreux of Braine (France) 

Daughter of Robert IV de Dreux and Beatrix de Montfort. Married to Count Jean IV de Roussy and Jean de Bar, Seigneur de Puisaye. 

1281-1300 Chief of the Guglielmite Sect Manfreda Visconti da Pirovano in Italy

In 1260 Princess Blazena Vilemina - believed to be the daughter of the king of Bohemia - appeared in Milano and gathered a religious community around her, and after her death in 1281, she was venerated as the Holy Spirit incarnate. The same year Manfreda Visconti da Pirovano was elected Pope (Papessa) and vicar of the Holy Spirit upon earth, by a college of female cardinals, and as a result an inquisitorial process was initiated against the group, which counted around 30 members from various social classes, with the ruler's son, Galeazzo Visconti as the most prominent member. She was burnt at the stake. (d. 1300).


1282-1312 Sovereign Dame Eschiva d’Ilbelin of Beirut (Lebanon)

Succeeded sister, Isabella, and ruled jointly with various husbands, including Guy de Lusignan (d. 1300), Constable of Cyprus, the son of king Hugh III, who had unsuccessfully tried to control her Isabella, who was the widow of his cousin, King Hugh II. Eschiva's son, Hugh IV de Lusignan, succeeded to the throne of Cyprus, even though his father, Guy was only the fourth son of Hugh III, but his elder uncles (John I and Henry II), were either childless or their heirs were disqualified to inherit the throne.


1282-1305 Reigning Abbess Marguerite de Wormhoudt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Her family originated in Normandy.


1282-89 Politically Influential Bibi Terken in Kirman (Iran)

Also known as Bibi Khatun, she was a major player in events both in the ordu (at the court) and in Kirman until her death in 1288 or 1289.


1282-1337 Hereditary Princess Gwenllian of Wales, Gwynedd and the royal family of Aberffraw (United Kingdom)

The last trueborn Princess of Wales was the daughter of Llywelyn the Last and his cousin Eleanor de Montfort, daughter of Simon de Montfort. Her mother died in childbirth at the palace of Pen-y-Bryn, in Abergwyngregyn near Bangor, Gwynedd on 12 June 1282, and her father was killed at Irfon Bridge a few weeks later, becoming therefore the only child of the marriage. There were no sons to inherit the title of Prince of Wales, but as the daughter of Prince Llewellyn, she was the heiress of the Princes of Gwynedd and the royal family of Aberffraw. She thereby was the Princess of Wales and as a result represented considerable danger to the king of England. Were it not for their close family ties it is likely that the king would have arranged for her too to be killed. Instead, the king, Edward I, had her hauled off to Sempringham Convent in Lincolnshire, where she spent over 50 years incarcerated. Edward kept the title of 'Prince of Wales' for the crown, bestowing it upon his son Edward who was crowned in Caernarfon in 1301 aged 17 years. Hence the title passed as a grace title bestowable by the English monarchy. She lived (1282-1337).


1283-1317 Sovereign Countess Guillemette de Neuchâtel of Montbélard (France) 

Also known as Guillaumette de Neufchâtel, she was named sole heir by her Her great-grandfather, Therry III (1205-37-87). Her father, Amédée de Neufchâte was son of Thierry's daughter, Marguerite de Montbéliard, and the Grand Sire de Neufchâtel-en-Bourgogne, Signeur de Blamont, Châtelot, Belmont et Cuisance. She married Renaud de Bourgogne and after a war of succession, they reigned jointly until her death. When he died in 1322 their mentally handicapped son, Othenin de Montbéliard, succeeded under the regency of his uncle, Hugues de Chalon as regent. Her daughter Agnes and her husband inherited the County in 1332. Guillemette lived (1260's-1317).


1283-1308 Titular Empress Catherine I de Courtenay of Constantinople (Turkey), Dame of Courtenay (France)
Also Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Albaina) and Dame de Courtenay (France)

Daughter of Philippe, the son of Emperor Baudouin of the Latin Empire in the ancient city of Byzanz and parts of Greece. He was deposed 1261. Plans were made to marry her to Friederich of Sicilia, but nothing came of it. The Pope interfered, there were also attempts to have her marry the heir to the Byzantine throne, Michael IX, but she declined because the contract was not lucrative enough for her, and in 1302 she married Count Charles I de Valois (1270-1325), who was planning a crusade against Byzantine when she died. Mother of three daughters and a son, who died just before herself, and she was therefore succeeded by the oldest, Catherine II, as heir to the Latin Empire of the East. Catharine I lived (1274-1308).

1283-85 Governor Queen Constance Hohenstaufen of Sicily (Italy)

In 1262 her father, Manfredo Hohenstaufen, arranged her marriage to Infant Pedro of Aragon. Manfredo lost his crown and life in 1266, and she was his heir - though the throne remained in the hands of Charles of Anjou, a brother of King Louis IX of France. Her husband gave her in her own right the title of Queen, before succeeding to the throne in 1276. In 1282 her husband - now Pedro III made a triumphant entry into Messina, and in the following year she left for Sicilia, and it was announced that the Infant Jaime would be heir to Sicily as the elder son, Alfonso, would remain heir of Aragon. In the case of Jaime's minority, she would act as regent. Pedro III had to depart Sicily, leaving her in charge. In November 1285 Constance's husband died at Villafranca de Penadres where he was buried, and the following year Jaime was crowned - though the pope excommunicated both her and her son. When in 1291 her eldest son, Alfonso III, died childless Jaime succeeded him, remaining king of both countries until 1296 when Fadrique, Constance's third son, became King of Sicilia. She returned to Spain and lived (1249-1301).


1283-91 Regent Dowager Dame Marguerite de Lusignan of Tyre, Titular Princess of Antiochia (Israel)

After the death of her husband, Jean de Montfort, Lord of Toron and Tyrus, she became regent of the Lordships. Sultan Qalawun was preparing to attack the Franks not protected by the truce of 1283, and she asked for a truce, which was renewed in 1291, the following year she handed over Tyre to her nephew Amalric and died as a nun in Cyprus. She was daughter of Henri de Poitiers of Antiochia and Isabella de Lusignan of Cyprus. She lived (1244-1308).


1283-84 Sovereign Countess Constance de Moncada of Bigorre (France)
Succeeded Eskivat de Chabannais, who had succeeded their grandmother, Countess Petronille, (1190-1251). Eskivat was grandson of Petronille and her second husband, Gui de Montfort and Constance was granddaughter of Petronille and her fourth husband, Boson de Mastas. His Montfort cousins at Viterbo 1271 murdered Constance’s first husband, Henry Plantagenet of Cornwall, the son of Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of The Romans and Isabel Marshal. She was joint ruler with her husband, Lori, who reigned until 1292. (d. 1310).

1283-98 Princess-Abbess Euphemia of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Chapter enjoyed immunity and was not under the authority of the Prince-Bishop of Salzburg.


Before 1283 Reigning Abbess Mathilde von Hohenberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Daughter of Burchard III von Hohenberg and Mechtild zu Pfalz-Thübingen and sister of Anna (or Gertrud) von Hohenberg, the wife of Rudolf von Habsburg.


1284-85 Empress Regnant Theodora Megale Komnene of Trebizond (Turkey)

With help of Georgian King of Imereti, David VI Narin she managed to seize the crown of the Empire founded by members of the Imperial family which escaped to the Black sea after the Sack of Byzantium in 1204, and subsequent establishment of the Latin Empire by marauding Crusaders, from her half-brother, Emperor John II. Shortly afterwards she was defeated and John regained his throne, but she had managed reign long enough to have minted her own coins. A nun either before or after her short reign, and daughter of Emperor Manuel I of Trebizond by his second wife, Princess Rusudan og Georgia, and lived (before 1253–after 1285).


1284 Titular Queen Irene Palailologina de Monferrato of Thessalonica (Greece) 

Her father, Guglielmo VIII of Monferrato in Italy gave up the title of titular king upon her marriage to Emperor Andronikos II. Palailogos of Byzantine. Her father was Marchese di Monferrato (1253-92), titular King of Saloniki (1262-84), Signore d'Ivrea (1266-67) and (1278-92), Signore di Milano (1278-82), and died in prison Alexandria in 1292. Her mother was his third wife, Beatriz of Castilla. She lived (1274-1317).


1284-1304 Reigning Abbess Marguerite I de Pocey of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The abbey was placed directly under the protection of the Pope and the King of France and was among the richest in Europe and the Abbess ruled over both monks and nuns.


1285-87 Maat Layla Sultan of Harrar (Ethiopian Sup state)

She succeeded her brother as head of the Semitic speaking Islamic Ethiopian Boarder State.


1285-1300 Reigning Abbess Kunigunde IV Hainkhover  of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Another version of her surname was Hainkoverin.


1286-90 Queen Regnant Margaret of Scotland and The Orkney Islands (United Kingdom)

Also known as the Maid of Norway. When her mother, Margaret of Scotland married Erik of Norway, the marriage treaty included a provision for their children to succeed to the kingdom of the Scots if the male decendants of her father, Alexander III had died. And when his son died in 1284, Alexander summoned all 13 Earls of Scotland, 24 barons and the heads of the 3 main Gaelic kindreds of the West, and had them sign a document to recognise Margaret as "domina and right heir" if neither Alexander had left no posthumous child and the king had left no children at the time of his death. When he died suddenly in 1286, his widow, Yolande de Dreux, was pregnant but gave birth to a still-born child shortly after, making Margaret the heir, but Robert Bruce - a member of the royal family raised a rebellion, but it was soon suppressed. The Norwegians pressured Margaret's claims and made a treaty with the King of England with Edward, Prince of Wales, but she died in the Orkney Islands in 1290 while voyaging to Scotland. She was buried in Norway. In the two years that followed, Scotland was left with 14 claimants to the throne. She lived (1283-90).

Agnes af Danmark

1286-1304 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Agnes von Brandenburg of Denmarkof Lolland-Falster

Acted as regent for son Erik IV Menved 1286-92 after her husband, Erik V was assassinated. Several magnates who had been found guilty - probably unjustly- of killing her husband and had been outlawed in 1287 challenged her rule. These outlaws, who were aided by the Norwegian king and soon joined by Duke Valdemar of Schleswig and the new archbishop, Jens Grand, raided the Danish coasts. Erik defeated Valdemar and reached an agreement with Norway in 1295, but he continued to feud with the Archbishop, whose imprisonment led to a papal interdict of the king in 1297. Erik's settlement with Pope Boniface VIII (1303) enabled him to resume Danish conquests along the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1304 the emperor Albert I ceded to Denmark all lands north of the Elbe River. Lolland-Falster was her dowry, which she administered as a royal fief, being in charge of aspects of the local administration also after her marriage to Count Gerhard II of Holsten and became mother of another son, Johann. She lived (1258-1304).


From 1286 The Sovereign Baroness of Chalandritsa (Greece)

Succeeded father Nicholas de la Tremouille and reigned jointly with Georges Ghizi (1291-1311). 


Until 1286 Sovereign Dame Anna Komnena Dukaina of Kalamata and Clermont (Greece)

Married to Prince Guillaume II de Villehardouin of Achaia (d. 1278) and Prince Nicolas de Saint-Omer of Achaia (d. 1294), and mother of Isabelle de Villehardouin, who became Princess of Achaia 1278/94. Anna (d. 1286).


Around 1286 Sovereign Baroness Cassandra Sanudo of Milos (Greece)

Head of the island that is situated in the southwestern Cyclades, which belonged to the Byzantine Empire until 1204. It is not known whom she succeeded or how long she reigned, but François Sanudo is mentioned around 1300.


1286-92  Reigning Abbess Ryssa I von Leuchtenberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

As a reichsunmittelbare stift - an Imperial immediacy - the territory was was under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord and therefore had the right to collect taxes and tolls and held juridical rights.


1287-9... Regent Dowager Duchess Helene Angelina Komnena Dukaina of Athens, Heiress of Lamia and Larissa  (Greece)

After the death of her first husband, Duke Guillaume de la Roche-sur-Yon, she became rent for step-son, Gautier V, from 1391 jointly with her second husband, Count Hugues de Brienne, di Lecce etc. (1240-96) whose first wife was Isabelle de la Roche-sur-l'Ognon, Lady of Thebes and Countess of Karytaena. Helene was daughter of Joannes, Archon of Neopatras and lived (circa 1260-94).


1287-94 Regent Dowager Duchess Salomea von Pommern of Karniów-Rybnik (Poland)

Also known as Salomea Pomorska, she was widow of Duke Siemomysł of Inowrocław in 1268. Daughter of Duke Sambor II of Tczew and mother of 6 children.  (d. 1312/14).


1287-97 Politically Influential Queen Guta von Habsburg of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

Soon after her marriage to Václav II of Bohemia she gained influence on him and inflamed his expansion plans in Slesia and Poland and she introduced German traditions at court, most importantly the presence of knights and she thereby continued the opening of Prague to the west, that Kunigunde of Swabia had begun, and the city became a cultural centre. She also tried to reconcile her husband and brother, Albrecht, Duke of Austria and her role in foreign politics was not without significance. She gave birth to 10 children but only the son Václav and the daughters Anna, Elisabeth und Margarethe survived. The two first motioned both became Queens of Bohemia. She originally named Jutta and was daughter of Count Rudolf von Habsburg and his first wife Gertrud von Hohenberg, and lived (1271-97).


Until 1287 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth van Burget of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


1287-93 Princess-Abbess Isabelle I of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Elected as successor of Elisabeth van Burget.


Around 1287 Dame Abbesse Anne I de Glère of Remiremont (France)

Abbess of Säckingen and charged with the administration of Masevaux when she was imposed as Abbess by Emperor Rudolf von Habsburg. Later excommunicated for ursurping the abbasiate.


1287-95 Reigning Abbess-General Berenguela López of the Royal Monastery of Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls


1287 In Charge of the Government Dowager Countess Sibylla of Armenia of Tripoli (Lebanon)

After the death of her son, Bohemond VII (1257-87) she appointed as regent Bertrand of Gibelet. He proved to be very unpopular with the commune of the city, who created their own administration. In 1288 her daughter, Lucia arrived to take over the government.


1287 Dowager Countess Sibylla de Châtillon of Tripoli (Lebanon)

Attempted to succeed her husband, Bohemond VII (1257-87), but her sister-in-law was finally selected as his successor.


1287-95 Reigning  Abbess-General Berenguela López of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Daughter of Lope López, II señor de la Guardia and Berenguela González de Girón

Lucia of Tripoli and Antioch

1288-99 Sovereign Countess Lucia de Poitiers of Tripoli (Lebanon)
1288-89 Sovereign Princess of Antiochia (Syria)

About a year after the death of her brother, Bohemund VII she came to Tripoli from Auxerre, where she had married Narjot de Toucy, to take control of the county, although she was opposed by both the commune and the Genoese. The Genoese, led by Benedetto Zaccaria, tried to install a podesta, an official administrator from Genoa, which would have made Tripoli essentially a Genoese colony. At this the leader of the commune consented to acknowledge her, but she unexpectedly allied herself with the Genoese instead. The Venetians and Pisans, who also had trading links with Tripoli, were shocked at this and supposedly conspired with the Mameluk sultan Qalawun to attack the city. She allied with the Mongols, who, knowing that Tripoli was too weak to defend itself even with their help, asked for support from Europe, although no aid was to be found there. Qalawun besieged Tripoli for one month in 1289 and captured it on April 26. Two years later Acre, the last Crusader outpost in the Holy Land was also captured. Although he could have claimed the county through her, her husband never came to Tripoli, as he was attending to business in the Kingdom of Napoli, where he died in 1292. The date of her death is unknown. She had one son, Philippe de Toucy, who inherited the lordship of Terza on Narjot's death and the claim to Antioch on her death. She lived (circa 1265-1299).


1288 Reigning Dowager Countess Beatrix d'Avenes of Luxembourg

Widow of Heinrich VI (1240-81-88), and regent for son Heinrich VIII (1274/75-1313), who later became Holy Roman Emperor. She lived (1250/55-1320).


1288-1310 Sovereign Dame Beatrix de Bourgogne of Bourbon (France)

Succeeded mother, Dame Agnès, who inherited the title after her father in 1249, and reigned jointly with her husband, Robert II de France, Count de Clermont (d. 1317). Succeeded by son Louis I, who was given the title of Duke de Bourbon. She lived (1257-1310).


1289-1307 Sovereign Princess Isabelle de Villehardouin of Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica, Baroness of Karytaina and Bucelet (Arakloven) (Greece)

Also known as Zampea, she was daughter of Guillaume II de Achaia (1246-78) and Anne Komnena Angelina (Ange, Angelus). She had first been Betrothed to Andronikos Palaiologos, son of Mikhael VIII Emperor of Byzantium, but this was broken off. Instead her first marriage to, Philipppe of Sicily, son of Carlo I, had been arranged to seal her father's, Prince Guillaume's, alliance with the King of Sicily. It was popular with the Frankish barons in Achaia who preferred a westerner as their potential future prince, despite the marriage contract providing that Achaia should revert to the house of Anjou whether or not any children were born of the marriage. He was created titular King of Thessaloniki in 1274 at Brindisi by her brother, Philippe de Courtenay Emperor of Constantinople. After his death, she remained at the court of Napoli. Her brother-in-law, King Carlo d'Anjou II of Sicily, in his capacity of Prince of Achaia, granted her the barony of Karitena and Bucelet in 1289 and she was invested as Princess of Achaia by King Charles in 1289, jointly with her second husband, Florens de Hainalut, Stadtholder of Zeeland, Lord of Braine-le-Comte et de Hal en Hainault, at the time of their marriage, and he held the offices of Constable of the Kingdom of Sicily and Vicar-General of Corfu 1289-1290. And she governed personally after his death in 1297, although she retired to her castle of Nesi in Kalamata. 1301 sShe married Philippe de Savoie, lord del Piemonte, whose rule in Achaia was marked by despotism and self-interest and he was deposed in 1306. The following year they separated and she continued to protest the loss of Achaia from Hainaut, where she was living, in spring. 1311 she affirmed her rights to Achaia, and those of her daughter Mathilde. Her younger daughter, Marguerite de Savoie, inherited Karytena in 1311. She lived (circa 1259-1312).


1290–1302 and 1320–1327 Regent Dowager Queen Helvig von Holstein of Sweden

When she was married to king Magnus III in 1276, she was granted the fief of Dåvö in Munktorp in Västmanland. She founded convents and churches but dooes not appear to have been politically active, but after his death, she was regent for their son, King Birger (1280-90-18), and after he was deposed and went into exile, she was in charge of the government in the name of her grandson, Magnus, with her daughter-in-law Ingeborg as regent in Norway. She lived (1260-1324).


1290-1300 Co-Regent Queen Catherina Tomasina Morosini of Hungary

Her husband István the Posthumous of Hungary, Duke of Slavonia (1236-71) who died as a Patrician in Venezia, was son of King Endre II of Hungary and Croatia (1205-35). She became co-ruler when her son, Endre III (1265-90-1301), came to the throne after the son of his third cousin; Lázsló IV was murdered during the civil wars in the country. She was daughter Micaele Sbarra Morosini, and Patrician of Venice of lived (1240-1300).


1290-92 Reigning in Dissidence Queen Mária of Hungary

Lead a contra government in opposition to King Endre III, after her brother Lázsló IV was murdered, when she was acknowledged as kiralyno (female king) by the Dalmatian regions, with the provision that her son Carlo Martello (Martell Károly) was to be elected king in her place. She was daughter of King V. István and Elisabeth, who was regent of the kingdom 1272-77, and married to the future King Carlo II of Napoli and Sicily. She lived (circa 1257-1323).


1290-1325 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Rethel (Belgium)

Succeeded father Hugues IV, and reigned jointly with husband Louis de Nevers (1290-1322).


1290-99 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Anjou and Maine (France)

Following the death of father Charles II, she reigned jointly with husband, Charles II (1270-1325), Count of Valois, Titular King of Aragon, Valencia and Barcelona, Titular Emperor of Constantinople, who was succeeded by their son in Anjou and Maine in 1313 and after his death also in Valois and Chartres. He became king Philippe VI in 1328.  


1290 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Béarn (France)

Inherited the county after the death of her father, Gaston VII, and in 1290 her husband, Roger Bernhard III of Foix also became count of Béarn. He was taken prisoner both by Philip III. of France and by Peter III. of Aragon. Their marriage led to the outbreak of a long feud between the houses of Foix and Armagnac; a quarrel which was continued by their son and successor, Gaston I., who became count in 1302, inheriting both Foix and Béarn.


Around 1290 Princesse-Abbesse Laure-Félicité de Dombasle of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz  (France)

Raised to the rang of Princesse of the Empire (princesse d'Empire) in 1295, the same year a peace-treaty was concluded with the Duke of Lorraine, Ferry III, after years of dispute over control of the territory. She was member of a line of the countly family of Salm.


1290-1323 Reigning Abbess Irmgard von Wittgenstein of Herford (Germany)

Her uncle, Siegfried von Westerburg, Archbishop of Köln, tried to remove Berta von Arnsberg as Princess-Abbess of Essen and impose her as the new head of the chapter, but he did not succeed. When Berta died in 1292, she was candidate for the position again and remained Contra-Abbess in opposition to Beatrix II von Holte until 1304.


1290 Reigning Abbess Adelheid von Grieningen of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Member of a German noble family. 


1290 Reigning Abbess Anna von Veringen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Could be identical with the Abbess of the same name, that is mentioned 1311-20.

An unnamed Khanum of a Mongolian Principality in Persia

1291-95 Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din Padshah Hatun of Qutlugh Khan (Iran)

Padshah became ruler and took the title Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din (Purity of the earthly world and of the faith) after Djalal da-Din Abu'l-Muzzafar was deposed as head of the Mongol tribe, which reigned in the southeastern Iran. She had her stepbrother Suyurghatamish arrested and eventually killed. She was daughter of Kitlugh Turkan or Turkan Khatun, Queen of Qutlugh Khan or Kirman (1257-82). In 1295 her husband's successor Great Khan Baydo of the Ilkhan dynasty, had her put to death on the advise of the leader of Suyurghatamish's clan, his widow, Khurdudjin.


1291-95 Ruler Kürdüjin of Kirman (Iran)
1319... Ruler of Fars

Eldest daughter of Abish Khatun, the last Atabeg (Ruler) of Fars 1263-75 and 1283-87. She was first married to the sixth Qutlugh-Khanid ruler of Kirman, Soyurghatmish and made two other significant marriages before the Ilkhan Abu Sa'id (717-36/ 1317-35) granted her the tax-farm of the province of Fars, but the but the new Ilkhan Ghazan (1295-1304) replaced her with a son of Hajjaj, and she either lived at the ordu or in Fars until Abu Sa'id granted her the revenues of Fars, where she ended her life as a magnificent ruler and patron.


1292-1327 Princess-Abbess Beatrix II von Holte of Essen (Germany)

Pröbstin of Vreden from 1273. After the death of Berta von Arnsberg, the Sub-Stewart, the Count von der Mark, quickly had himself appointed steward of the chapter by the Dechaness and had Beatrix elected as Abbess to make sure Archbishop of Köln would not impose his niece, Irmgard von Wittgenstein, Abbess of Herford as Princess-Abbess so that she could afterwards appoint him to position of steward of the chapter for the diocese, which had become vacant by the death of Rudolf von Habsburg half a year earlier. Beatrix was unanimously by the 26 canonesses and 16 canons present. Both the Pröbstin Mechthild von Renneberg and  Irmgard von Wittgenstein were absent. She was member of a family of lower nobility from who had moved away from Osnabrück because of disputes with the Bishop of Münster. Her brother, Wig bold von Hole, was elected Archbishop of Köln in 1297 and the following year Armguard von Wittgenstein officially resigned any claims to the chapter, but Beatniks was not officially confirmed in office by the Bishop of Minden as representative of the Pope and soon after by the king. She managed to improve the economic situation of the chapter and thereby secured its existence as an imperial immediate territory. She lived (circa 1250-1327).


1293-1340 Princess-Abbess Iolande de Steyne of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The Abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


Circa 1293-circa 1303 Princess-Abbess Catherine I de Vaudemont of Remiremont (France)

Head of the free worldly (secular) chapter for noble ladies.

Mechtild von Habsburg

1294-98/1300 Joint Guardian and Co-Regent Dowager Duchess Mechtild von Habsburg of Upper-Bavaria 
1294-1304 Lady of Vohberg, Neuburg, Burglengenfeld, Reidenburg, Ingolstadt, Aichach, Landsberg and the other Bavarian Cities in the Schwäbische Land (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig II von Bayern (1229-94) her oldest 19 year old son, Rudolf, claimed the right to be guardian and regent for the youngest son, Ludwig of Upper-Bavaria - later king of the German Realm under the name of Ludwig IV - but Mechtild did not accept this, and she continued to intervene in the affairs of state, and contemporary sources states that "her rule was good and masculine". Mother and oldest son continued to be at odds and in 1302 she was arrested by Rudolf and brought to München, where she signed an agreement promising never to interfere in the government again, but as soon as she was outside the boarders of Bavaria she declared the agreement null and void, and got the support of her brother, Albrecht von Habsburg, her younger son and many others. She was daughter of the German King Rudolf I von Habsburg and Gertrud Anna von Hohenberg, was mother of five children, and lived (1253-1304).

1295-1301 and 1312-21 (†) Regent Dowager Queen María de Alfonso de Molina of Castilla and León (Spain) 

Lady de Molina in her own right, she was widow of Sancho IV. As regent for her son, Ferdinando IV, she defended his throne against several pretenders, who were at various times supported by France, Aragón, Portugal, Navarre, and Granada. 11 years later, after Ferdinando’s death, she acted as a guardian to her grandson Alfonso XI, while the regency was contested among his other relatives. She was daughter of Alfonso de Molina, the son of King Alfonso IX de León, and Mayor Tellez de Meneses, Lady de Montealegre y Tiedra, and lived (1265-1321).


From 1295 Queen Wakaakaa of Buton (Indonesia)

Founded the state in South Eastern Suwasi, but ruled only on Buton Island. Succeeded by daughter.


After 1295 Queen Bulawambona of Buton (Indonesia)

Succeeded mother and expanded the territory


1295-1307 Princess Joan of Acre, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)

Born in Acre (Akko) in Palestine as daughter of King Edward I of England (d. 1307) and Leonor of Castilla and Leon while her parents were travelling to the Middle East on the Ninth Crusade. At least part of her childhood she spent in France with her maternal grandmother, Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu. She was betrothed as a child to Hartman, son of King Rudolph I of Germany, but he died in 1282 after drowning in the Rhine. She then married Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford, and was mother of Eleanor de Clare (1292-1337), who became Lady of G. and W. in 1314. After Gilbert's death, she clandestinely married Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, a knight in her household, in 1297. Her father was enraged by this lowly second marriage, and her husband was thrown in prison but was released in 1297, and allowed to hold the title of Earl of Gloucester and Hereford during her lifetime. Princess Joan had 8 surviving children with her 2 husbands and died while giving birth to a stillborn child, after having lived (1272-1307).


1295-1327 Sovereign Countess Sibila of Pallars-Sobirá (Spain)

The successor of Ramón Roger I (1288-94), she ruled jointly with Hugo I de Mataplana from 1297.


Until after 1295 Hereditary Dame Beatrix de Champagne-Navarra of l'Isle-sous-Montreal (Lebanon)

Married Hugues IV, Duke of Bourgogne, Count de Châlon, etc, titular King of Thessalonica (1213-72) as his second wife. She was daughter of Theobaldo or Thibaut I "le Grand" of Navarre, Count de Champagne et de Brie (1201-53) and his third wife, Marguerite de Bourbon-Dampierre, mother of five children, her son was seigneur of Montreal until his death in 1294. She lived (1242-after 95).


1295-1326 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Alfonso II of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

By the initiative of Infanta Blanca, Lady of Las Huelgas, Fernando IV granted her the right to name city scribes and authroze their acts, a privillege confirmed by Alfonso XI in 1317.


1296-1317 Sovereign Princess Agnese de Cicon of Karystos (Greek Island State)

Succeeded Felicia dalle Carceri and reigned jointly with Boniface da Verona, and was succeeded by Maria. The Greek name of Karystos is Evvia or Euboea is the second largest island. It lies along the eastern coast of the Attika mainland and is in fact an extension of an ancient mountain chain running up into the mainland in the north and continuing into Andros and the Cyclades in the south. It is termed a 'mainland island' and not included in any of the other island groups.                    


1296-circa 1313 Regent Dowager Despina Anna Paleologina-Cantacuzena of Epirus (Greece/Albania)

From the time of their marriage in 1264 she has exercised a dominating influence during the reign of her husband, Nicephorus I. After his death she became regent for her son, Thomas of Epirus. As the niece of Emperor Michael VII of Byzantine, the pro-Byzantine party gained control. In 1306 the anti-Byzantine forces, lead by Philippe de Taranto (married to her daughter Tamar) joined forces with the Catholic Albanians, seized Dyrrachium, and intended to depose Anna, but the campaign failed. 


Around 1296 Baroness Thamar Komnena Angelina Dukaina of Bonditza and Lepanto (Greek Island State)

Daughter of Nikephoros I Dukas Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, (1240-96) and Anna Cantakuzene of Nikæa (d. 1313), she was given the baronies as a dowry upon her marriage to Philippe d'Anjou, Prince of Taranto, Despot of Romania, Lord of Durazzo and Prince of Achaia (1278-1332). She engaged in a dispute with her mother over Taranto. In 1309 he accused her of adultery and divorced her, and afterwards married Catherine II de Valois, titular Empress of Constantinople, Princess of Achaia. Thamar was mother of 8 children, entered a convent and lived (circa 1277-1311)


1296-1303 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Hohenfels of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

If she was indeed a member of the Hohenfels-family, her father was Grosswin von Hohenfels, who worked for Rudolf von Habsburg.


1296-1303 Politically Influential Duchess Elisabeth von Liegnitz in Liegnitz-Brieg and Breslau-Liegnitz (Legnica, Brzeg and Wrocław) (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Hendryk, she was involved in the governing of the state during the reign of her oldest son until she moved to Bohemia. The daughter of Duke Bolesław the Devout of Małopolska and Princess Helena of Hungary, she was mother of 8 children, and lived (1261/63-1304).


1298-99 Regent Dowager Tsarina Smiltsena Paleologina of Bulgaria

After the death of her husband, Tsar Smilets of Bulgaria (1292-98) she was regent in the name of her minor son, Ivan II, after apparently having defeated her brothers-in-law, Radoslav and Voysil (Vojsil), who sought refuge in the Byzantine Empire and entered into Byzantine service. To meet this threat and the invasion of the Mongol prince Chaka, she sought an alliance with Aldimir (Eltimir), the brother of the former ruler George Terter I, who was then married to her daughter Marija. 1299 she gave over the capital Tărnovo to Chaka, who installed himself as Tsar. Ivan II and his retinue settled in the possessions of Aldimir, where they may have remained even after the accession of Aldimir's nephew Theodore Svetoslav to the throne in 1300. In 1305 she was negotiating with the Byzantine government on behalf of either Aldimir or her son, but with Aldimir's subjugation by Theodore Svetoslav in the same year, the family disappears into obscurity. In the sources she is named as Smitlstsena, but her first name is not mentioned, she was daughter of the byzantine Prince Constantine Palaiologos and (d. after 1306).


1298-13.. Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes von Habsburg of Sachsen-Wittenberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Albrecht II, she was regent for their son Duke and Prince Palatine Rudolf I. (circa 1285-98-1356) She was daughter of Emperor Rudolf, and lived (circa 1257-1322).


1298-1339 Titular Judicissa and Countess Giovanna Visconti of Gallura (and Cagliari) (Italy)

Her father, Ugolino Visconti, had already been deprived of Gallura by the Republic of Pisa at the time of her succession as an infant, so it was purely nominal. She claimed her rights in Sardinia to no avail and eventually sold them to her relatives, the Visconti of Milan, who later sold them to the Crown of Aragon. On 13 November 1309, she married Rizzardo da Camino, Count of Ceneda and Lord of Treviso. In 1328, she was granted a pension by the Este family of her mother, Beatrice d'Este. (d. 1339).

1298-1322 Princess-Abbess Herradis von Praitenfurt of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Reichsabtei was home of ladies of high nobility of the Holy Roman Empire.

Irmingarde von Gernrode 

1298-1307 Countess-Abbess Irmengarde II von Ummendorf of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Irmingarde, she had to borrow money to cover the costs for the regalia and the "papal recognition fee" of about 1 "mark of silver", and in order to pay off the depts she had to give out some of the possessions of the chapter as tenantcies to the local nobility.


1298-1308 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Spiegelberg of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

Member of an old noble family, in 1281 Count Moritz came in possession of some land in the valley between the Mountains of Ith, Osterwald and Nesselberg in Weserbergland. The County included 5 villages and stayed in the family until 1557 when it was inherited by the House Lippe.


1298-1303 Reigning Abbess Agnès III de Cérilly of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

After both Agnès de Juilly and Marguerite de Sergines were elected Abbesses in 1443 a lenghtly dispute and court cases followed.


1298-1318 Politically Influential Queen Märta af Danmark of Sweden

During the reign of her husband, King Birger, she participated in all the intrigues of his court. In 1306 they had been captured and imprisoned by his brothers and forced to hand over the real power to them, but a few years later they invited the brothers to great festivities, captured and imprisoned them, and left them to starve to death. When her husband was deposed in 1318, she fled to Denmark, were she spent the rest of her life. She was daughter of King Erik V of Denmark and the former regent, Agnes of Brandenburg, and lived (1277-1341).


1299-? Reigning Abbess Ryssa II von Dornberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Dornberg is a village in the former County of Ravensberg in Preussen (Prussia).

Last update 11.11.16


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