Women in power 1150-1200

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


1150-51 De-facto Regent Countess Beatrice of Edessa (Israel)
Her husband, Joscelin II de Courtenay lost most of the territory to Nur ad-Din of Aleppo in 1146 and in 1150 he was taken prisoner during an attempt to re-conquer the county, and Beatrice sold what was left of the area to the Byzantines. She was mother of two children, Joscelin III (d. 1187/1200) and Queen Agnes of Jerusalem, where she was politically influential from 1176.

Uta  of Schauenburg Around 1151-1196/1200 Sovereign Countess Uta of Schauenburg (Germany)
Daughter of Gottfried von Calw and was one of the richest heiresses in Germany. After her father's death followed a harsh succession war, which was solved in her favour by the nephew of her husband Wolf VI Friedrich Barbarossa Hohenstaufen in 1151. She lived (circa 1115-1996/1200).

Countess Hodierna 1152 Regent Dowager Countess Hodierna of Jerusalem of Tripoli (Lebanon)
Third daughter of Queen Morphia (dp.1129) and King Baldwin II of Jerusalem (d.1131), and sister of Queen Regnant Melisende of Jerusalem, Alice, Regent of Antiochia and Abbess Joveta. She was married to Count Raymond II of Tripoli. But her reckless way of life led to doubts about the legitimacy of her daughter Melisende. Her husband, Raymond, tried to keep her confined in seclusion. In 1152 her sister, Queen Melisende of Jerusalem intervened and managed to have the two reconciled. But her husband was murdered outside the gates of Tripoli only days after. She assumed regency of Tripoli for her 12 years old son Raymond III, though guardianship of the boy was given to King Baldwin III. She then moved to Nablus, where her sister, Melisinde was residing. She lived (circa 1110-circa 64).


1152-84 Countess Abbess Adelheid IV von Sommerschenburg of Gandersheim (Germany)

The Pfalzgräfin or Countess Palatine was in close contact with Hildegard von Bingen, whom she has brought up.


Around 1152 Abbess Nullius Febronia of the Monestary of Goleto (Italy)

The chapter was funded in 1085 by Saint Guglielmo as a doubble monastery. In 1506 Pope Giulio II issued a decree supressing the chapter, which took place by the death of the last Abbess in 1515. She held semi episcopal authority and was ruler of the feudal territories surrounding the Abbey and built a famous tower to protect the Abbey and its surrounding territory from the attacking Longobards.


1154-65 Co-Reigning Countess Consort Constance of France of Toulouse (France)
Her first husband, Count Eustache IV.of Boulogne, Duke of Normandie and Heir to the English Throne died in 1153 and the following year she married Raimondo V of Toulouse. She was the first Countess of Toulouse to use the title of Duke, she often signed official documents with the title "Regina" or "Dux Narbonnæ", but at her seal she used the title "Ducissa". The couple was divorced 1165. She was daughter of king Louis VI in his second marriage to Adelaide de Savoie, the mother of four children, and lived (circa 1124-circa 80).


1155-80 Reigning Abbess Audeburge de Haute-Bruyère  of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Haute-Bruyère is a city in present day's Belgium.


1155 Hereditary Countess Judith von Hernstein of Falkenstein and Hernstein (Germany)
After the death of her father, Count Herrand II von Falkenstein, she delegated her rights to Falkenstein and Hernstein to Duke Otto. She was first married to Nizo von Raitenbach (d. circa 1183) and Albero Wolf von Bocksberg (d. circa 1230) and mother of Konrad von Hohenfels (d. 1233) and Albero Wolf von Bocksberg (b. circa 1230). Neither the date of her birth or death is known. 


1156 Sovereign Dame Mathilde-Mahaut de Bourgogne of Montpensier and Comtesse de Grigon (France)
Daughter of Dame Agnès de Thiern (around 1140), and lived (1150-1192).


1056-1116 Sovereign Countess Gertrud of Haldensleben (Germany)

Succeeded her uncle, Wilhelm as Countess of Haldensleben and her territory were incorporated into the Duchy of Sachsen. Married to Count Friedrich von Formbach, who was killed in 1059, and Duke Ordulf von Sachsen (1020-72), and was a central figure in the Saxon opposition against king Heinrich IV, who held her prisoner around 1076. 

Queen Sugala 1156/57 Rebellion Leader Queen Sugala Devi in Sri Lanka
Raised the standard of revolt in Ruhuna against Parakrama Bahu the Great (1153-1186), who had become sole monarch of Lanka. She was gradually driven to the south of the island by the royal army operating in Uva, and her defeat was ensured by the arrival of other forces from Sabaragamuwa and the western sea coast. Sugala Devi herself was captured and the revolt collapsed.


1159-70 Sovereign Countess Marie I of Boulogne (France)
Abbess of Ramsey in England when her brother, Guillaume, died and she had to marry Matthias of Alsace, who became Count of Boulogne and co-ruler in 1160. They reigned together until their divorce in 1170 and produced had daughters together. After their divorce, she was a nun after 1169 in St. Austrebert, Montreul. Her former husband continued to reign as Count of Boulogne until his death in 1173, when their daughter Ida became the Countess. Their second daughter Mahaut of Boulogne, inherited the possessions in England, and married Henry I, Duke of Brabant, whose granddaughter, Adelaide later inherited the county. She was daughter of King Stephen de Blois of England, Comte de Mortain, Duke de Normandie and Countess Mahaut I de Boulogne, and she lived (1136–82).


1160-80 Sovereign Countess Tiburge II of Orange (France)
Succeeded father Guillaume II and was succeeded by great-aunt, Tiburge III who had been joint ruler since 1173.


1160-97 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de France of Véxin (France)
Daughter of King Louis VII of France and first married Henri Court-Martel, Prince of England, Duke of Normandie (d. 1183) - the son her father's ex-wife Leonore of Aquitaine, and secondly with King Béla III of Hungary. She lived (1155-97). 


Until 1160 Sovereign Countess Sophia von Winzenburg (Germany)
Married to Albrecht der Bär, Count von Ballenstedt, Lord of der Mark Lausitz, Margrave of Saxony (1124-38), Duke of Saxony (1137-41), Margrave of Brandenburg (1140-70), Margrave von Stade, Count von Aschersleben, (1096/1100-70) and mother of 13 children, she (d. 25.03.1160).


1160-61 Princess-Abbess Meregart of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Pfalzgräfin Adelheid von Sachsen-Sommerschenburg followed her on the post.

Fürstäbtissin Adelheid III von Quedlinburg, Princess of Sachsen-Sommerschenburg

1161-84 Princess-Abbess Adelheid III von Sommerschenburg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Pfalzgraf Friedrich II of Sachsen-Sommerschenburg and Luitgard von Stade. She was the sole heir of her brother Adalbert von Sommerschenburg, who died 1179, but since she had no chance of prevailing against Heinrich der Löwe, who saw the chance of strengthening his position in the Eastern part of Germany, she sold her rights to the Archbishop of Magdeburg. She was also Abbess of Gandersheim (1152-53), and lived (1130/35-84).


1162-1228 Sovereign Countess Beatrix of d'Albon of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans and Briançon and Dauphine Viennois (France)
At the age of one, she succeeded father Guigues V under the regency of her grandmother, Clémence until 1164 and her mother Beatrix until circa 1179 from when she reigned jointly with husbands Albéric Taillefer de Toulouse (1157-1183), from 1183 with Duke Hugues III de Bourgogne, who died 1192 and the following year with Hugues de Coligny-Revermont (d. 1205), and succeeded by son André Guigues VI, who took over as Dauphin of Viennois and Count d'Albon around 1202. Mother of three children, and lived (1161-1228).


1162-64 Regent Dowager Countess Clémence de Bourgogne of  Albon, Grenoble, Oisans and Briançon and Viennois (France)
Reigned in the name of her granddaughter. When she died, Béatrice's mother, Beatrice de Montferrat, took over the regency.


1162-63 Joint Regent Marguerite of  Albon, Grenoble, Oisans and Briançon and Viennois (France)
Possibly regent together with her mother until her own death. 


1164-78 Dowager Khanum Regnant Yelü Pusuwan Chengtian Taihou of Qara Khitai (Turkistan) 
Also known as Empress Chengtian, Cheng Tian Hou) of Qara Khitai she was sister of Yelü Yilie, who ruled as emperor Liao Renzong in 1151-64. In the 1120s China's Liao Dynasty was ousted by the Liaos, or Khitans, and were driven west into Central Asia,  where, after defeating the Seljuq Turks of Persia under the Sultan Sanjar in 1141, they founded the Qara-Khitai Empire with Samarkand as its capital covering present day's Mongolia, Northern-China, Kyrgyzstan and other central Asian territories. The khanate was weakened in about 1200 by attacks from the Khwarizm shahdom and in 1218 it collapsed precipitately when the Mongols invaded. The governmental institutions of Qara Khitai were taken over by the Mongols to form the foundations of their own imperial administration.   

1163 Reigning Dame Theodora Komnena of Acre (Israel)

Given the Lordship as dowry after her first husband; King Baudouin III d'Anjou of Jerusalem had been killed. Daughter of Prince Isaak Comnenos of Byzantine and his second wife Irene Diplosynadena Komnena. In 1167 Emperor Andronikos I of Byzantine arrived in Acre and they became lovers, since they were too closely related to be allowed to marry. Her relatives intervened and Andronikos returned to Constantinople and she vacated her lands and fled alone to Damascus, where Nur ed-Din received her friendly. She spent the following years travelling through the Ismalic countries and even visited Baghdad. She was given a Castle by an Emir close to the Paphlagonian boarder, where Andronikos, who had been excommunicated, lived a happy life as robber. They apparently married, and she became mother of a daughter, Irene. It is not known what happened to her father Andronikos was murdered in 1185, but it is believed that she lived (1145-circa 1217).


1163-70 Reigning Abbess Lutgard I of Herford (Germany)

Also known as Ludgard. The next known Abbess was Eilika from circa 1180.


1164 Regent Dowager Margravine Kunigunde von Chamb-Vohburg of Steiermark (Austria)

After the death of her husband, Ottokar III (1124-29-64) she ruled the margravate for son Ottokar IV (1164-92), Margrave of Styria (Steiermark). Her husband was a member of the Marburg line of the Counts of Sponheim, he inherited parts of Lower Styria between the Drave and Save rivers in what is today Slovenia. He participated in the Second Crusade. Her son later became Duke and was the last of the Ottokar Line and the territory was the inherited by the Barbenberg Dukes of Austria.


1164-76 Regent Dowager Countess Mechtild von Schwarzburg-Käfernburg of Holstein-Wagrien (Germany)
When her husband Adolf II was killed in battle, she was regent for son Adolf III (circa 1160-1225) and trough many years she was in dispute with the counts of Badwide-Ratzeburg about the succession and the Slaws. Daughter of Count Sizzo III von Schwarzburg-Käfrnburg and Gisela von Berg. (circa 1130-93).  


1164-79 Regent Dowager Countess Beatrix di Monferrato of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans and Briançon and Viennois (France)
After her mother-in-law, Clémence de Bourgogne, she was in charge of the regency for her daughter, Beatrix, who inherited the county in 1162 at the age of one. (circa 1142-1228).


Before 1165-79 Dame Abbesse Mathildis of Remiremont (France)    

Head of the Benedictine double monastery that housed both canonesses and canons.


Circa 1165-76 Sovereign Countess Sofia von Rheineck of Bentheim (Germany)
Succeeded mother, Gertrud von Northeim, who had been in charge of the county since the death of her husband, Otto I von Rheineck and Bentheim in 1150. Sophie's brother, Otto, had been killed the year before. Her mother had been politically active already since the death of her first husband 1113, trying to secure the inheritance of her oldest sons. Sophie married Dirk VI of Holland, and her second son, Otto, became Count of Bentheim around 1166. She died on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1176.


1166-71 Regent Dowager Queen Margarita de Navarra of Sicily and Malta and the Principality of Capua (Italy)
Margherita di Navarra was daughter of King Garcia VI and married to Guillermo I, who was Prince of Capua before becoming co-king in 1151. He often ignored her, but she was a stronger person than he and therefore politically influential, and several times convinced him to act where he was wont to be passive. After her husband's death, she was regent for son Guillermo II (b. 1154-) in the Kingdom and for the second surviving son, Enrico in Capua. At the day of her son's coronation she declared a general amnesty throughout the realm. She also revoked her late husband's least popular act: the imposition of redemption money on rebellious cities. She appointed Peter, a Moslem convert and a eunuch as the new Admiral, much to the annoyance of many a highborn nobleman or palace intimate. She was distrustful of the native-born aristocracy and wrote a letter to her cousin, Rothrud, Archbishop of Rouen, asking him to send one of her French relatives, on her mother's side, to help her govern. Her cousin Gilbert, Count of Gravina, already present in the south, was an enemy of Peter's and, according to Hugo Falcandus, strongly opposed to his cousin's government. It was in this breakdown of relations between court and nobility that Peter defected to Tunisia and reconverted to Islam. She was therefore forced to appoint Gilbert as catapan of Apulia and Campania and send him to the peninsula to prepare for the coming invasion of Frederick Barbarossa. At this juncture, the her popularity abated considerably and she was known in the street as "the Spanish woman." In 1167, she did her best to send money to the besieged Pope Alexander III in Rome, then opposing their common enemy, the Emperor Barbarossa. In Autumn of that year, however, she made a horrible blunder. She appointed Stephen to the vacant archbishopric of Palermo. With that, not only the nobility, but also the clergy, now despised her beloved nevertheless of the populace. In 1168 a Council of Regency was formed with her as nominal head. She spend her last years with charitable work and she founded a monetary. She lived (1128-83).


1174-1208/17 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Maria Komnena of Jerusalem of Nablus (Israel)
On his deathbed her husband, King Amalric, gave the Lordship of Nablus to her and her daughter Isabella. He was succeed by his son Baldwin IV, and his mother, Agnes de Courtenay returned to the court, and she moved to her new territory. 1177 she married Balian of Ibelin, who commanded the defense of Jerusalem against Saladin in 1187. She bore him at least four children. They supported Conrad of Montferrat in his struggle for the crown against Guy of Lusignan. They arranged for Isabella to have her first marriage annulled so that she could marry Conrad, giving him a stronger claim to the throne. As the grandmother of Alice of Champagne - Isabella's daughter by her third husband, Henry II of Champagne - she conducted the marriage negotiations with Cyprus in 1208 with Hugh I of Cyprus. Blanca de Navarra, Regent and Countess of Champagne, widow of Alice's paternal uncle, provided the dowry for Alice. This is the last time she is mentioned, and she was certainly dead by 1217. Also known as Komnene or Comnena, she was daughter of John Komnenos, sometime Byzantine dux in Cyprus, and Maria Taronitissa, a descendant of the ancient Armenian kings, and lived (circa 1154–1208/17).


1166-67 Sovereign Countess Dulcia II of Provence and Melgueil, Vicomtesse de Gevaudan and Rodez (France)
Also known as Dulce, she succeeded her father, Raymond Berenguer III. In the period 1162-1196 her cousin, King Alfonso II of Aragón, occupied Barcelona and from 1167 also Provence. She was engaged to Raimond VI de Toulouse, and lived (circa 1165-1172).


1166-67 Regent Dowager Countess Richsa of Poland of Provence (France)
In charge of the government during her infant Dulcia's brief reign. Richsa was daughter of Duke Wladyslaw II. of Poland, of Krakow and Schlesia, and Agnes of Austria and first married to king Alfonso VII of Castilla-Leon and mother of two children by him, who both predeceased their father. After his death in 1157 she went to the court of Raimondo Berenguer IV's court in Barcelona, whose son, Alfonso II of Aragon had been engaged to her daughter. In 1161 she married Raymond Berenguer III of Provence and after his death in five years later, she married Count Albrecht II. von Everstein (d. 1197), an ally of her mother's cousin Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa. She lived (1130/40-1185).

1167-82 Sovereign Countess Élisabeth of Vermandois, Valois and Crépy (France)
Also known as Isabelle, she was the oldest sister of Raoul II she was married to Philippe d'Alsace, Count of Flanders, who participated in a crusade. She did not have any children and Vermandois was inherited by her husband and Valois by her sister Éleonore, who became Countess of Vermandois after Philippe's death in 1191. Élisabeth lived (1143-82). 


1167 Sovereign Countess Adelheid von Loccum of Hallermund (Germany)
Daughter of Count Wilbrand I von Loccum-Hallermund and Beatrix on Rheineck, and first married Count Konrad von Wasse, Vizthum von Hildesheim and secondly Count Günther von Käfernburg und Hallermund. Mother of two sons and two daughters.


1170/72 Regent Dowager Sultan Turhan of Hwarizim Sahi of Uiguristan (China and Kazakstan)
Reigned in the name of Sultan Sah Abd’l Quasim Mahmud 1170/72, who was deposed as ruler of the kingdom. The origin of Uigur ethnic group can be traced back to the nomadic people living around Lake Baikal and the area between the Irtish River and Lake Balkhash in the third century B.C. During the long history, these people amalgamated the north and south Xinjiang (China), Mongolian, Han and Tibetan clans. And the present Uigur ethnic group came into being. The Uigur has its own language and alphabet, which belongs to the Turki Austronesian, Altai Phylum. In their language, "Uigur" means "solidification and union". The Uigurs rely heavily on agriculture as their main source of survival. They plant cotton, wheat, corn and paddy. The largest grape base of China is also located in the Turpan Basin.


1170-1201 Sovereign Dame Arnalda de Caboët of Andorra
Her father, Arnau de Caboët, had been given the Valley of Andorra as a fief by the Bishop of Urgell. Her mother, Sancha de Castellbò was daughter of Pierre Raymond, Viscount de Higher Urgell and Vicomtesse Sibylle de Cerdagne. Arnalda married Viscount Arnau de Castellbò-Cerdagne (1155-1226), and daughter, Viscountess Ermessenda de Castellbò I Carboet, who married Roger Bernard II of Foix in 1208, and Andorra was inherited by the houses of Foix, Béarn and Navarra, succeeded them. Arnalda lived (1164-1201).


1170-73 Sovereign Viscounts Marie of Béarn and d'Oloron, Brulhois and Gabardan and Countess of Bigorre (France)
Succeeded brother, Gaston V. Her only known act during her reign was the act of homage rendered at Jaca to Alfonso II of Aragon on 30 April 1170. She and a delegation of Bearnese nobles accepted an oath containing several newly inserted clauses of Alfonso's making which asserted the Crown of Aragon's absolute rights and total control over and above the three viscounties of Béarn, Gabardan, and Brulhois. In March 1171, the Catalan Guillaume I de Moncarde did homage to Alfonso for Béarn, implicitly as her husband. She does not thenceforth reappear with the vicecomital title. However, the Catalan was not acceptable to the Bearnese nobless, which promptly rebelled against their new liege lord. Immediately, they elected Thibaut of the neighbouring County of Bigorre as their viscount, but, as he did not respect the Fors de Bearn, they executed him within the year. They then selected a nobleman of the Auvergne, Sentonge, who lasted two years in power before being suffering the same sad fate at the hands of the nobles. Throughout this whole period, Guillaume planned to conquer Béarn, but never got around to actually launching any military expedition. In 1173, the year Sentonge was executed, she abandoned her husband with their two young twin sons and entered the monastery of Santa Cruz de Volvestre. The Bearnese, having rid themselves of three viscounts in as many years, sent a delegation to the monastery to request one of her sons to succeed to the viscounty. She consented and sent the elder, Gaston. The younger son, William Raymond, inherited Béarn from his brother many years later. (d. after 1187).


1170-76 Sovereign Countess Ermessende of Pelet of Melgueil (France)
Her mother, Beatrice de Melgueil was heir to the county, and ruled together with her her father, Bernard V de Pelet  from 1146-70. She first married Pierre Bermond, lord of Anduze, and they ruled Melgueil until his death in 1172. The following year she married Raymond VI of Toulouse and ruled jointly with him. She ha willed the county to her husband, who continued to rule until his death in 1190. She (d. 1176).


Around 1170 Co-Ruler Countess Emma of Guines (France)
Together with husband, Baldwin I, Count of Manasse.

Constance of Bretagne 1171-87/1201 Sovereign Duchess Constance of Bretagne (France)
Succeeded father Conan IV. Her first husband was the son of King Henry of England and Duchess Regnant Leonore of Aquitaine; Geoffrey II Plantagenet was duke 1181-86 (†). Their daughter, Eleanor was Maid of Bretagne but became Countess in her own right of Richmond (1185-1208-41). Constance's second husband was Ranulph de Blundeville, 4th Earl of Chester. They divorced in 1199, and she then married Gui, Viscount de Thuars with whom she had the daughter Alice de Thuars. Gui was in charge of the Duchy until 1212. Constance lived (1161-1201).


From 1171 Possible Regent Dowager Duchess Margaret of Scotland of Bretagne (France)
Possibly acted as regent for daughter Constance who was underage. In 1175 she married Humphrey de Bohun (d. 1182) She was sister of the kings Malcom IV and William I of Scotland. Mother of one daughter of her first husband, and a son by her second, Henry, who was created 1st Earl of Hereford. She was daughter of Henry of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland and Ada de Warenne, and lived (circa 1145-1201).


1171-1218 Sovereign Countess Mahaut I of Bourbon (France)
Succeeded father Archambaud VIII and reigned jointly with husband Gui II de Dampierre 1200-15. Succeeded by son Archambaud IX. 


1171-87 Sovereign Princess Eschiva I of Galilée and Triberias (Israel)
Daughter of Guilllaume II (1148-58) and first married to, Gautier de Fauqenberge (Falkenberg) de Saint-Omer) (1159-71) who reigned Galiæa/Galiea, as prince. 1173 she married Raimond III of Tripoli, and in 1179 she paid a ransom of 50.000 Turkish Dinars (Lira) for her son, Hugo, who was taken prisoner by Sultan Saladin. 1187 the sultan conquered the main city of Tiberias. Her second husband and his sons was in the army of the King, but she send a messenger to tell him what was happening and she maintained the defence of the castle, but in the end she surrendered to Saladin, who allowed her and her court to move to Tripoli. Mother of four sons by her first husband. (d. after 1187).


1172-74 Politically Influential Terken Khatun of the Khwarezmian Empire (Iran)

After the death of her husband, Shah Il-Arslan, his sons began fighting over who would succeed him. Sultan Shah was the younger son, but he was considered the formal heir and she placed him on the throne. The elder son, Tekish, fled to the Qara Khitai and was given a large army, and he soon set off for Khwarazm. She and her son decided to flee, and Tekish installed himself in Khwarazm unopposed in December 1172, but she gained the support of Mu'ayyad al-Din Ai-Aba, a former Seljuk Amir who had set himself up in Nishapur since the collapse of Seljuk power there, he led an army into Khwarazm, but was defeated, captured and executed. Her son eventually found refuge with the Ghurids, but she was hunted down and killed by Tekish's forces.


1172 Military Leader Countess Alrude of Bertinoro (Italy)

Led an army to break the siege of Aucona, and forced the Imperial forces to abandon the siege and engaged in several battles on her return to her castle.


1173-87 Sovereign Baroness Stephanie de Milly of Oultrejourdain, Montreal et Corache (Israel)
The eldest daughter of Philip of Milly, Lord of Nablus and Isabella, daughter of Maurice, Lord of Oultre-Jourdan. Her first husband Humphrey III of Toron held varied positions of power within the Kingdom. After his death in 1170, she married Miles of Plancy (d.1174). Through her marriages, Stephanie had managed to acquire two important crusader garrisons: Kerak (not to be confused with Krak des Chevaliers) and Montreal. When Stephanie was besieged within Kerak by Nur ed-Din, she sent for assistance, and was rescued by her first father-in-law Hunphrey II of Toron (d.1179). In 1174 she married Reynald of Chatillon. When Saladin besieged and retook Jerusalem, Stephaine's son Humphrey was amongst the ransomed captives. Stephanie asked for the release of her son and Saladin agreed to release him only on surrender of Kerak and Montreal - both garrisons refused. Stephanie duly returned her son to Saladin, who released him soon afterwards. Her daughter, Isabella was heiress of Oultrejordain and Toron.  (d. circa 1197)


Around 1173 Sovereign Baroness Lucia of Botrum (Israel)
A Latin crusader-state in the Holy Land.


1173-1214 Sovereign Countess Ide of Boulogne (France)
Her mother, Marie de Blois, was Countess of Boulogne until her divorce from Mathieu d'Alsace in 1170, who continued to reign as count until his death in 1173. She married Mathieu II with Philippe d'Alsace as regent. After his death in 1180, she married Count Gerhard III van Gelders, Duke Berthold IV von Zähringen (or possibly Berthold V) and finally Count Rainald I. von Dammartin-en-Goelo, who were all joint regents. Ide's sister, Mathilde, inherited the estates in England that their mother had inherited from her father, King Stephen. Ide was succeeded by daughter, Countess Mahaut II (Mathilde) de Dammartin et Boulogne in 1214, and lived (1161-1214/16).  


1173-82 Sovereign Countess Tiburge III of Orange (France)
Daughter of Tiburge I, and reigned jointly for some time with Tiburge II, the granddaughter of her brother Raimbaud III


1174-1208/17 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Maria Komnena of Jerusalem of Nablus (Israel)
On his deathbed her husband, King Amalric, gave the Lordship of Nablus to her and her daughter Isabella. He was succeed by his son Baldwin IV, and his mother, Agnes de Courtenay returned to the court, and she moved to her new territory. 1177 she married Balian of Ibelin, who commanded the defense of Jerusalem against Saladin in 1187. She bore him at least four children. They supported Conrad of Montferrat in his struggle for the crown against Guy of Lusignan. They arranged for Isabella to have her first marriage annulled so that she could marry Conrad, giving him a stronger claim to the throne. As the grandmother of Alice of Champagne - Isabella's daughter by her third husband, Henry II of Champagne - she conducted the marriage negotiations with Cyprus in 1208 with Hugh I of Cyprus. Blanca de Navarra, Regent and Countess of Champagne, widow of Alice's paternal uncle, provided the dowry for Alice. This is the last time she is mentioned, and she was certainly dead by 1217. Also known as Komnene or Comnena, she was daughter of John Komnenos, sometime Byzantine dux in Cyprus, and Maria Taronitissa, a descendant of the ancient Armenian kings, and lived (circa 1154–1208/17).


1174-84 Politically Influential Ex-Queen Agnes de Courtenay of Jerusalem (Israel)
After the death her ex-husband, king Amalrich in 1174, her son, Baudoin IV became king and she returned to Jerusalem were she became very influential even during the reign of her grandson, Baudoin V, and she was a leading figure in the "Court Party" which took part in the political manoeuvrings of the time. She was first married to Rainald, Prince of Marasch, killed in battle 1149, secondly to Hugh d'Ebelin, Lord of Rahmala, whom she divorced. Her second marriage to her second cousin, King Amalrich I. of Jerusalem was dissolved in 1162 because they were too closely related and she finally married Rainald de Sidon. Mother of two children by her third husband, she was the daughter of count Joscelin II. of Edessa and der Beatrice.


1174/78-1228 Reigning Abbess Mathilde I of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Also known as Mahaut, she was daughter of Henri, Catelain de Bourbourg


1175-81 Regent Dowager Countess Mahaut de Bourgogne of Auxerre, Nevers and Tonnerre (France)
1170 she married Count Guy, who was involved in various wars - first he accompanied King Louis VII of France during his campaign against Baron Geoffroy IV de Donzy and in 1174 he was involved in a fight against Duke Hugues II of Bourgogne because she - and her mother-in-law - had advised him not to pay homage to the Duke for the possessions he held in Bourgogne. He lost the fight, was taken prisoner but was freed after she paid his ransom, but died soon after, making her regent for her son, Guillaume V, who died as a child and was succeeded by sister, Agnès, after her uncle, Renaud, had renounced his rights in her favour.


1177-82 Sovereign Countess Valença of Pallars-Jussá (Spain)
In charge of Pallars Jussa in succession to her father, Raimondo V, who had succeeded his father, who succeeded a distant relative, Valença was succeeded by another distant relative, Dolça de So.


1177-1206 Sovereign Dame Meselinde of Arsuf (Israel)
Her husband, Jean I d'Ibelin was Lord of Beirut and Ausuf until his death in 1236. Succeeded by two sons.


1177-80 Reigning Abbess Tutta II von Falkenstein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Probably member of the Countly family of Falkenstein bei Brannenburg in Bayern.

1178-84 Joint Ruler Queen Tamar of Georgia
1184-1213 The Most High Queen, by the will of our Lord, King and Queen of Queens of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West, Glory of the World and Faith, Champion of the Messiah
Thamar or Tamara was member of the royal house of Bagrationi, she was 19 years old when her father Grigori III had her crowned co-ruler, and when he died she became the sole ruler of Georgia. Despite the fact that she was 25 on her accession, Tamar was placed under the official guardianship of her father's sister Rusudani. She dealt with the various factions within the nobility by giving commands of provinces to important generals and prominent nobles. During her reign the kingdom reached the apex of its political, economic and cultural might. A unique Georgian Christian Culture flourished in this multinational state, exalted by great building projects. After the conquest of Byzantium by the Fourth Crusaders in 1204, Tamar sent troops to Trebizond and Kerasund in support of her relative, Alexios Comnenus, who would become Byzantine Emperor 1205. She personally led the Georgian forces and routed the Turks at the battle of Basiani. From here on, she pursued a policy of military aggression - Kars surrendered in 1205 and her son Grigori was made Governor; she exerted her hold over the local Muslim semi-protectorates; received tribute from some of the southern Russians provinces. In 1209 The Emir of Ardabil attacked Georgia, slaughtering 12.000 Georgians and enslaving thousands more. Tamar took her revenge the following year - she took the Emir of Ardabil by surprise, killing him, and as warnings to others who might threaten Georgi, Tamar's troops began raiding deep into North Persia and other surrounding regions. Married 1185 and divorced two years later to Prince Giorgi of Novgorod and then in 1189 she married King Davit-Soslani of Ossetia (d. 1207). Succeeded first by son, Giorgi IV Lasha, and then by daughter Rusudan in 1223. Tamar lived (1159-1213).


1178-90 Sovereign Countess Beatrix III Stephanie of Bigorre (France)
Succeeded father, Centule III and reigned jointly with husbands Pierre II de Dax and Bernard IV de Comminges, who died in 1226. She was succeeded by daughter, Petronille.


1178-... Regent Dowager Rani Naikidevi of Chalukyas (Chauleskyas) (India)
When Mohammed Ghori attacked the Chalukyas, the king was only an infant; his mother Naikidevi became the regent and led her troops to war and defeated Ghori.


1179-80 Regent Dowager Rani Karpura Devi of Ajmer (in Rajastan) (India)
Situated in the heart of Rajasthan desert, Ajmer has a blend of Sufi
culture and Hindu religion. Ajmer has always been a strategic
place for the Rajputs, the Mughals and the Marathas. Ajmer was the seat of administration for the Chauhans till Prithviraj was defeated in 1193 by Mohammad Ghori. It then became a part of the Delhi Sultanate. However, Rana Kumbha of Mewar and Raja Maldeo again established Rajput rule over Ajmer.


1179-81 Regent Countess Marie de France of Blois-Champagne and Troyes (France)
1181-87 and 1190-98 Regent Dowager Countess

First took over the government when her husband went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 1180 her father died and her half-brother Philippe became king. He confiscated the dower lands of his mother Adele (also Marie's sister-in-law) and then married Isabelle of Hainault, who had been previously betrothed to her eldest son. This prompted her to join a party of disgruntled nobles - including Queen Adele and the archbishop of Reims - in plotting against Philippe. Eventually, relations between her and her royal brother improved. Her husband returned from the Holy Land, but died almost immediately. Now a widow with four young children, she considered marrying Philip of Flanders, but the engagement was broken off suddenly for unknown reasons. After her husband’s death, she acted as regent until her son, Henri II, came of age. However, he left to go on Crusade, and she once again served as regent in his absence until his death 1197 she retired to the nunnery of Fontaines-les-Nones near Meaux, and died there the following year. She was a patron of literature and maintained her own library. She was daughter of King Louis VII of France and Duchess Éleonore d'Aquitanie, her sister Alix was regent of Blois from 1191. She was mother of 4 children, and lived (1145-98).

1180-82 (†) Regent Dowager Empress Maria de Antiochia of the Byzantine Empire (Cowering what is now Greece and Turkey)
During her marriage to Emperor Manuel, she played a role in the political and diplomatic life of Constantinople. French being her mother tongue, she was able to observe the double-dealing of the hypoboleus (court interpreter) Aaron Isaakios, who was quietly advising Westerners not to pay too much for the Emperor's favour. After his death, she became a nun with the name Xene, but in reality she acted as regent for their son Alexios II. Despite being a nun she had many ambitious suitors, but she chose another Alexios as an advisor and lover, causing a scandal among the Greek population. As a Westerner who favoured the Italian merchants, she was opposed by the Greeks, and her regency was widely considered incompetent. Her regency was opposed by her stepdaughter Maria Komnena (daughter of Manuel by a former wife) and her husband Ranier de Monferrato. Andronicus Comnenus was sent for by popular acclaim and was crowned co-Emperor. He eventually assumed total control of Constantinople. Maria was condemned to be strangled, and her son forced to sign the warrant by new Emperor Andronicus. Her son was murdered two months later. She was She was daughter of Constance of Antiochia (d.1162) and Raymond de Poitiers, and lived (1145-82).


1180-82 Oppostion Leader Maria Komnene of the Byzantine Empire (Cowering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Known as the Porphyrogenita ("born in the Purple Chamber") she lead the oppostion against her step-mother, the Regent Maria of Antioch, together with her husband, the Caesar Renier of Montferrat, and she might have considered herself the rightful heir, as the elder child of Manuel. They gained the support of the Patriarch and used Hagia Sophia as a base of operations. Her Empress Marie's lover, Alexios, had the patriarch arrested, leading to open warfare on the streets of Constantinople. She invited back her father's cousin, Andronikos Komnenos, who had been exiled, and he provoked the citizens into a massacre of the Latin inhabitants, mostly Venetian and Genoese merchants. After gaining control of the city, he had both her and her husband poisened, Empress Maria arrested and imprisoned in the monastery of St. Diomedes or in a prison nearby. She lived (1150-82).

1180 Regent Dowager Landgavine Jutta Hohenstaufen von Schwaben of Thüringen (Germany)
In 1150 she married Ludwig II (1128-72) and in 1168 she initiated the building of the borough of Weeissensee as a princely residence. When her sons Landgrave Ludwig (1172-90) and Hermann and were taken prisoners by Heinrich dem Löwen (Henry the Bear), she ruled the Landgravate. Her high position shows in the mentioning of her name in various official documents issued by her husband, and when her second son Hermann I succeeded his brother as Landgrave (1190-1217) he called him self - among his many other titles "Son of the Landgravine Jutta, who is a sister of Emperor Freiderich I." She was the sister of Friedrich III Barbarossa, Duke of Swabia (1147-52), King of Italy (1154-86), King of Germany (1152-90), Comte de Bourgogne (1156-90), King of Bourgogne 1178 (d. 1190), mother of four sons and one daughter, and lived (circa 1135-1190).

Queen Isabelle 1180-90 Sovereign Dame Isabelle de Hainault of Artois (France/Belgium)
Daughter of Baudouin V-VIII of Flanders and Hainault and Margareta of Flanders. She was married to king Philippe II August of France, and her son, Louis, was created Count d'Artois. She died after having given birth stillborn twins, and lived (1170-90). After her death her husband first married Ingeborg of Denmark, but their marriage broke down in 1200 and he then married Agnès de Méranie, but also this marriage was repudiated.


1180-96 Sovereign Countess Havoise of Aumale (France) 
Succeeded father Guillaume I and reigned jointly with three husbands; William de Mandeville, Earl of Essex until 1189, Geoffroi des Forts until 1191, and Baudouin de Choques until 1196.After her death, the French king reigned the county until 1200. 


1180-1208 Sovereign Countess Mahaut Taillefer of La Marche and Angoulême (France)
Also known as Mathilde, she fist succeeded a relative, Aldebert V, in La Marche. In Angoulême, she succeeded father, Vougrin II Taillefer, who had been deposed by king Richard of England in 1179. Her two brothers succeeded each other as pretenders to the county and she was succeeded by niece, Isabella, who claimed the title after her father's death in 1202. In La Marche Mahaut reigned jointly with her husband Hugues de Luisignan (d. 1206).


1180-90 Reigning Abbess Adelheid I von Wolffershausen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Wolffershausen was a village in Thüringen.

Reichsfreie Äbtissin Eilica von Herford

Circa 1180-1215/17 Reigning Abbess Eilica of Herford (Germany)

Succeeded by Gertrud II zur Lippe, who was in office until 1233.


Around 1180s Dame Abbesse Cunegundes of Remiremont (France) 

The chronology for the period is not clear, and therefore the exact dates of her reign is not known.


Around 1180s Dame Abbesse Euphemia of Remiremont (France) 

Lady of the City of Remiremont and more than 70 other lordships in the surroundings of the chapter.


1180-89 Reigning Abbess Gilles/Gillette of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. A Prior under the control of the Abbess commanded the monks in the double-convent.


1181-92 Sovereign Countess Agnès I of Auxerre, Tonnerre and Nevers, Dame de Donzy  (France)
Daughter of Count Guy I. de Nevers-Auxerre-Tonnerre (d.1175) and Mahaut/Mathilde de Bourgogne-Grignon, she succeeded her brother Guillaume V, and became the first of a succession of female rulers, which lasted for more than a century. She spend three years at the court of the king of France, who married her to the grandson of King Louis VI of France, Pierre II de Courtenay, Emperor of Constantinople (1216-19), and succeeded by her only daughter Mathilde, who was head of all three counties (1195-1257). Agnes lived (circa 1170-92).


Around 1181 Abbess Nullius Ermelinda of the Monestary of Aguileia (Italy)

Held temporal and secular authority over the territory and held semi episcopal authority. The Italian version of her title was Badessa del Monastero benedettino di Santa Maria extra muros di Aquileia.


1182-92 Sovereign Countess Dolça de So of Pallars-Jussá (Spain)
Succeeded Doña Valença. In 1192 Bajo Pallars was incorporated into Cataluña-Aragón.

Eléonore de Valois 1183-91 Sovereign Countess Éleonore of Valois
1185-1214 Sovereign Countess of Saint-Quentin and Péronne
1191-1214 Sovereign Countess of Vermandois  (France)

After the death of her sister, Élisabeth, she claimed the county of Vermandois, but her brother-in-law Philippe d'Alsace, refused to give it up, but after long debates she was allowed to keep the county of Valois, but engaged in warfare with him. In 1185 seeded Saint-Quentin and Péronne to her and after he died 1191 exchanged Vermandois for Valois which king Philippe-Augste. She was married to Godefroy de Hainault, Comte d'Ostervant (d. 1163) and Guillaume IV, Comte de Nevers, but as she had no children her fiefs reverted to the French crown. She lived (1152-1214).


1183-92 Regent Dowager Princess Agnes van Loon-Rieneck of Bavaria (Germany) 
Acted as a forceful regent for son, Ludwig, Duke of Bavaria (1174-83-1231) after the death of her husband, Otto I and V, Duke of Bavaria and Palatine of Wittelsbach, and managed to secure his inheritance. The mother of 9 surviving children, she lived (1150-91).  

Queen of Sri Lanka 1184-87, 1196-96 and 1197-98/or 1197-1200, 1209-10 and 1211-12 Queen Regnant Lilavati of Sri Lanka
Widow Parakrama Bahu I, who was succeeded by a number of  kings who only ruled for short times, she was placed on the throne by General Senevirat. Duringher first reign the country was peaceful and prosperous and she was able to devote her time to the development of literature, music, drama and art until she was removed from the throne by her co-Ministers. The next 9 years saw another succession of rulers until she was placed on the throne by General Camunakka for the second time, and he ruled the country by her, until she was  She was deposed by Lokissara, who arrived in Lanka with an army enlisted abroad, and defeated the royal forces at the capital of Polonnaruwa. He took the throne but was soon deposed, and she was installed as Queen for the third time until she was deposed after 7 months by King Parakrama of Pandu in South-India, who reigned until 1201.


1184-? Regent Princess Rusudani of Georgia
In charge of the government after the accession to the throne of her niece, Queen Tamar, and as her advisor for the first years of her reign.  


1184-circa 1240 Sovereign Baroness Marie Sans-Avoir of Pry (Israel)
Married to Jean I de Fabarel.

1184-1203 Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Ostmark und Meissen of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Margrave Konrad I and Luitgard. She lived (before 1145-1203).


1184-96 Countess Abbess Adelheid V von Hessen of Gandersheim (Germany)

Her title was "Edle" or Noble.

1185-92 Queen Sibylla d'Anjou of Jerusalem, Countess of Jaffa (Israel)
Countess of Jaffa from 1175, she succeeded her son, Baldwin V, and ruled jointly with husband prince Guy de Lusignan of Cyprus. She was crowned as Queen and then immediately crowned Guy as King.  


1185 Lady Aoife MacMurrough of Leinster, Countess of Ireland
Also known as Eva, she was daughter of Diarmit macDonnchada Macmurchada, King of Leinster and Mor ingen Muirchertaig O'Toole. She was married to Richard Strong de Clare Strongbow FitzGilbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and mother of Isabel de Clare, Countess of Strigoil and Pembroke, who lived (1174-1220).


1186-1227 Sovereign Countess Alix d'Eu, Lady of Hastings (France)
Succeeded brother, Raoul I and reigned jointly with husband Raoul II de Lusignan-Issoudun and was succeeded by son Raoul III.  She was daughter of Henri, Count d'Eu and Lord of Hastings and Maud de Warenne. She (d. 1246).


1186-... Opposition Leader Agalbursa de Cervera in Arborea
After the death of her husband, Barisone II of Arborea, he opposed her husband's eldest son by his first wife, Piedro de Serra, and instead tried to impose Hugh, the son of her daughter Pspella and Hugh I de Bas, as ruler with the help of her cousin Alfonso II of Aragon and the Republic of Genoa. Her grandson later succeeded to the throne. She signed a charter in 1186 as Dei gratia Arboree Regina - by the Grace of God, Queen of Arborea. 


1187-1194/98 Regent Dowager Duchess Anastazja of Poland of Pommern-Slawien-Stettin (Pomorze) (Poland)
1233-39 Possible Regent of Slawien-Stettin

Following the death of her husband, Duke Bogislav von Pommern (Bogusław I of Pomorze), she was regent for her sons Bogislaw II and Kasimir II jointly with Wartislaw II as joint guardian, who sought to have the fief renewed by King Knud of Denmark but also made ties with the German rulers. As it came to a riot against the Danish rule, Knud made a raid to Slawien and replaced Wartislaw with Prince Jaromar von Rügen, whose power she tried to curb. After her son came of age she continued to be active, granting lands to convents etc. She might have taken over as Guardian after her daughter-in-law, Miroslawa died in 1233 leaving her son, Barnim I. (1219-20-78), who was still a minor. Also known as Anastasia, she was daughter of Mieszko III Stary Duke of Wielkopolska and Princess Eudoksja of Russia After 1198 she was still politically active, and lived (before 1164-after 1240).


1187-1219 Sovereign Lady Juliana Grenier of Caesarea (Israel)
Succeeded brother, Gautier II


1187-90 Reigning Abbess María Sol of the Royal Monastery of of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Also known as Misol, she was the first abbess of the Monastery, and at a General Chapter of the Cistercians held in 1189, she was made Abbess General of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile, with the privilege of convoking annually a general chapter at Burgos.


Before 1188-1230 Princess-Abbess Otilia von Gutenberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

It was the only Chapter with the status of an Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbaren Abtei) in Austria.

  1189-95/or 1202-08 Queen Regnant Kalyanawati of Sri Lanka
Widow of king Nissanka Malla, and installed Queen by General Ayasmantha who ruled the country through her for six years until she was deposed.  The ancient chronicle Culavamsa says about her reign: "Thereupon King Sahasamalla of the race of Okkaka, a lion in courage, carried on the government for two years. Then having deposed this Monarch, the general Ayasmanta, a man of almost unsurpassable courage, a supporter of his royal family, prudently had the government carried on with wise policy for six months by Kalyanavati, the first mahesi of Kittinissanka. This Queen Kalyanavati, who was devoted to the Order of the Master, had a vihara called after her, built in the village Pannsalaka by name, for love of the village, and assigned it villages, fields, articles of use, slaves, gardens and so forth. With her consent, the general Ayasmanta, who administered the government in all Lanka, who came of the Khandhavara family, sent the Adhikarin Deva to charming Valliggama, had a vihara erected there and assigned to the Great community. He built the parivena known by his name of Sarakulavaddhana and caring for its support, he assigned it villages and fields surrounded by parks and the like and which could scarcely be visited by a bad harvest, together with articles of use and slaves male and female. Having scrupulously separated the four castes that had become impure through mixture, he bent on doing good, had a textbook compiled which had law as its subject." Her name is also spelled Kalyanawathee.

Empress Li Ciyi of China

1189-95 De-Facto Ruler Empress Li Ciyi of China
Her husband Guangzong (ruled 1189-95) was mentally unstable, and his continued illness created a vacuum for Empress Li to become a force in court politics. She proved to be irresponsible, arrogant, and temperamental and alienated officials. She was able to give positions to numerous members of her family and others whom she favored. After she was implicated in the assassination of her husband’s favorite concubine in 1191, the emperor worsened and eventually, the officials forced Empress Dowager Wu to name a new emperor in 1195. She lived (1144-1200).


1189-94 Reigning Abbess Mathilde II de Flandre of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the double-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess.

Isabella I 1190-1205 Queen Isabella I de Lusignan of Jerusalem (Israel)
The first two years she claimed the throne from her sister. Ruled jointly together with three husbands - the first one was Conrad de Monferrato, with whom she had her first daughter, Maria. Her second husband and co-ruler was Henri de Champagne (1192), father of Alice and Philippa. Her third husband was Amalric de Lusignan, father of Sibylla and Melisende and a son, who died in 1205, after which first her husband and then she self died. Succeeded by oldest daughter. Lived (1172-1205).

Alix de Blois-Champagne 1190-91 Regent Dowager Queen Adèle de Blois-Champagne of France
Third wife of Louis VII (1120-37-80), she was in charge of the government during her son, Philippe II August's participation in the crusades at the time. Louis' first wife was Duchess Eleanore d'Aquitaine, the second Constance of Castilla. Alix lived (1140-1206).


1190-91 Regent Countess Alix de France of Blois-Chartres (France)
In charge of the government when her husband, Thibaut, left for the East until his death one year later and he was succeeded by their 18 year old son, Louis I of Blois (1172-1205). Her sister Marie was married to Thibaut's brother, Henri, the Count of Champagne, and acted as regent several times from 1179.  Their parents, King Louis VII of France and Eleonore of Aquitaine divorced soon after her death and the sisters grew up with their father, while their mother married King Henry II of England. Among her 7 children was Alix of Blois, abbess of Fontevrault Alix de France lived (1150–97/98)


1190-1251 Sovereign Countess Petronille of Bigorre (France)
Succeeded mother Beatrix III Stephanie, and reigned jointly with her husbands Gaston VI de Béarn, Gui de Montfort, Aymar de Rançon and Boson de Mastas. She was succeeded first by grandson and then by granddaughter, Constance in 1283.


1190-97 Reigning Abbess Bertha von Frontenhausen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Apparently member of the ancient Frankish noble family, the Luitpoldings.


1190-1205 Reigning Abbess-General María Gutiérrez I of the Royal Monastery of of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa, she exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than fifty villages, held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privilege also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

1190-1203 Politically Influential Countess Aleid van Kleef of Holland and Zeeland (The Netherlands)

Also known as Adelheid von Kleve, she had a prominent position in the administration of the County. She is the first Countess of Holland who was always mentioned as gravin in stead of "wife" (uxor or coniunx) and very often co-signed decrees with her husband, and her husband might have prepared her for the role as regent of their three daughters. 1195 she commanded an army against her brother-in-law, Willem, who attacked Holland. When her husband became seriously ill in 1203 she married her youngest and only surviving daughter, Ada, off to Count Lodewijk van Loon, hoping to exclude Willem as possible successor, but instead a succession-war between her and Willem followed. She continued to use the title of Countess of Holland, even after Willem had asumed the title in 1210. It is not known where she spend the last years of her life. (d. circa 1238).


1190.. Advisor Hoelun of the Mongol Tribes
When her son Temüjin, later known as Genghis Khan, became leader of the Confederation of Mongol Tribes, she became his mos trusted advisor. When her husband, Yesugei, the chief of the Kiyad clan, died, his clan abandoned her and her sons, who were therefore raised in the harsh environment of the Mongolian steppes.


1190... Political Advisor Grand Khanum Börte Ujin of the Mongol Empire
As his first wife, she was the head of the first Court of Genghis Khan.
Her father, Dei Seichen,was a chieftain of the Onggirat tribe, which was friendly to Temüjin's tribe. When his father was murdered by the Tartars, and she was abducted by Merkits. Temüjin with Wang Khan and Jamuqa's armies rescued her from her captors. She was held captive for eight months, and she gave birth to Jochi right after she was rescued. Mother of 4 other sons and 5 daughters. As Genghis Khan continued to expand his influence and empire, Borte remained behind and assisted Genghis Khan's brother Temuge in ruling the Mongol homeland.


1190 Heiress Jutta von Thüringen of Altenwied, Bilstein und Neu-Windeck and the Pfalzgrafschaft Sachsen (Germany)
Only child of Landgrave Ludwig III of Thüringen and Margrete von Kleve, she married Dietrich, Count of Wettin Groitzsch (1159-1207). Their second daughter, Mathilde was Heiress of Altenwied and married Heinrich II von Sayn. Jutta lived (circa 1175-after 1208/16).

Queen Berenguela of Navarra and King Richard of England

1194 Titular Queen Berenguela of Navarra (Spain)

Also known as Berengaria or Berengere, she succeeded her father King Sancho VI and was succeeded by brother, Sancho VII, and married to Richard I Lionheart of England and became known as Queen Berengere or Berengaria. Her sister, Blanca, was regent of Champagne from 1201 and later of Navarra when their brother went into "retirement".  Berenguela did not have any children, and lived (1163-1230).


1191-1200 Ruler Melike Mama Hatun of Saltuklu (Turkey)
After the death of her brother, Nâsırüddin Muhammed (1168-1191), she directly administering the Anatolian beylik whose capital was Erzurum – one of the small states in the area. She was dethroned by the Beys and replaced by her son Melikşahonce she had started searching for a husband among the Mamluk nobility.


1191-94 Sovereign Countess Margaretha d'Alsass I of Flanders (Belgium)
Alternatively known as Marguerite, she was the oldest daughter of Dirk van Flanders and Sibylle d’Anjou, and succeeded her brother Philippe d'Alsace (Elsaß). The king of France attempted to secure Flanders for his son Louis, but the population of Brugge and other major cities received her and her second husband, Baudouin VIII of Hainault (1150-1195) with enthusiasm, and he received the fief in her name by the Holy Roman Emperor. First married to Count Raoul II de Vermandois. One of her six children was Henri, who became Latin Emperor of Constantinople. She lived (1145-94).


1191-98 Sovereign Countess Catherine of Clermont (France)
Daughter of Raoul I Count of Clermont en Beauvoisis (1130-91) and married to Louis de Blois, Count of Chartres (1166-1205), and succeeded by son, Thibault. She was born before 1176.


Circa 1191-1203 Sovereign Baroness Sophie van Voeren-Montaigue of Ravenstein (Netherlands)
Reigned the small barony in the northeast of the Dutch province of Brabant, on the left bank of the Maas jointly with Albert of Cuijk circa 1191-1233.


1191-circa 96 Dame Abbesse Clémence de Lunéville of Remiremont (France)
Member of a noble family from Lorraine, where the chapter was also situated.


1192-1200 Hereditary Burgravine Sophie von Raabs of Raabs zu Nürnberg, Lady of Cadolzburg, Raabs and Abensberg (Germany)
The Gräfin von Raabs, Erb–Burggräfin von Nürnberg was heiress of Nürnberg, Cadolzburg, Raabs and Abensberg, and after the death of her father of Konrad II, her husband, Count Friedrich I von Zollern was appointed Burgrave zu Nürnberg by Emperor Heinrich VI. After her husband's death in 1200 she sold the Market of Raabs and the countly rights to Duke Leopold of Austria, but the western part, with the main city of Litschau, was inherited by her sister Agnes and her husband, Count Gebhart Hirschberg-Tollenstein (Oberpfalz-Nordgau), whose son, Gebhart the Younger, sold the counties of Litschau and Heidenreichstein to Duke Albrecht I of Austria in 1297. Sophie was mother of two sons, who became ancestors of the two lines of the Hohenzollern-family, and a daughter. She lived (1170/75-1218).


1192-after 1217 Hereditary Countess Agnes von Raabs of Litschau (Germany)
Sister of Sophie, she inherited parts of their father's possessions and married Gebhard IV, Count von Hirschberg. She lived (1170/75-after 1217).


Around 1193 Rani Regnant Kurmardevi of Mewad (India)
Inherited the principality in Rajasthan after her husband's death and battled Kutubuddin. The Kingdom's name is also spelled Mevad.


1193-98 Sovereign Baroness Agnes de Giblet of Adelon (Israel)
Co-ruler with husband. 


1193-1256 Sovereign Countess Mahaut I de Courtenay of Nevers
1204-04, 1214 and 1218-19 Sole Regent of Nevers
1219-56 Sovereign Countess of Auxerre and Tonnerre, Dame de Courtenay (France)

Also known as Mathilde. Her mother Agnès died 1193 and her father, Pierre de Courtenay, Count de Namur 1212 and Emperor of Constantinople 1217, kept control of the three counties until 1299 when he transferred the County of Nevers to Baron Hervé V de Donzy, as part of a ransom for his freedom as he had been taken prisoner during a armed conflict between the two. The following year Mahaut was married to Hervé. Pierre kept control over Auxerre and Tonnerre until his death in 1219. 1204-04 and 1214 Hervé accompanied King Philippe on warfares against the English, and during 1218-19 on the Fifth Crusade and she was left in sole control of the counties, and he died three years later imprisoned in his chateau of Saint-Aignan. Her daughter Agnès I de Donzy and her husband was given the County of Tonnerre in 1213. In 1223 Mahaut signed the Municipal Charter of Auxerre. In 1225 Agnès died and the following year Mahaut married Guy de Forez and raised her grandchildren Gaucher and Yolande de Châtillon. Mahaut was succeeded by her great-granddaughter, Mahaut II de Dampierre - daughter of her granddaughter Yolande de Châtillon and Archambaud de Dampierre, and lived (1188-1256).


1194 Regent Dowager Queen Sibylla di Medina of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
Als known as Sibilla di Acerra, she was the widow of Tankredo di Lecce, King of Sicilia (1190-94) and regent for son Guglielmo III, who succeeded his brother Roger III in 1193. But the supporters of Queen Constanza gained ground and Constanza’s husband, Emperor Heinrich VI, offered her son the position as Count of Lecce in exchange of the royal insignia. But it seems that she got involved in a conspiracy against Heinrich, and therefore she, Guillaume and her three daughters were imprisoned and deported to Germany, where she and the daughters were placed in a convent. After Heinrich's death, they managed to escape to France. She lived (1153-1205).

Constanza of Sicily 1194-98 Queen Regnant Constanza of Sicily (Italy)
1195-97 Regent of Sicily
1197-98 (28.98-17.05) Sole Ruler of Sicily
Also known as Constance, she was married to Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI and daughter of King Roger II of Sicily. In 1185 her nephew King Guillermo II named her possible heiress of Sicily. On his death in 1189, however, the Sicilian nobles, wishing to prevent German rule in Sicily, chose Constance's nephew Tancredo of Lecce as William's successor. Emperor Heinrich VI conducted an unsuccessful campaign in 1191 against Tancredo during which Constance was captured but was released because she was pregnant. After Tancredo’s death in 1194 they were crowned King and Queen of Sicily and she gave birth to her only child, Friedrich. She was named regent in the absence of her husband in 1195 but clearly considered herself to be the rightful heiress and continued the forceful rule of her predecessor. When he died in 1197 she ruled alone for a year. In order to save the throne of Sicily for her infant son, Federico (later Holy Roman emperor as Friedrich II), Constance renounced the German kingship for Frederick and the following year he was crowned as king of Sicily, continuing to act as regent until her death. In her will she had named Pope Inocenz II as guardian for her son. As queen she used the titulature: Constancia dei gracia Romanorum imperatrix semper augusta et regina Sicilie and as regent for her son she added the term: una cum carissimo filio suo Frederico eadem gracia rege Sicilie, ducatus Apulie et Principatus Capue. She lived (1154-1198). 


1194-1203/05 Regent Dowager Senior Duchess Elena Znojemska of Poland Minor, Sandomir and Mazowsze-Kujawy (Małopolska and Sandomierz) (Poland)
Also known as Helena of Bohemia, she ruled in the name of Leszek I 1194-98, 1199-1200 and 1201) and Mieszko III (1998-99 and 1202) and for Wladislaw (1202-06). Poland Minor was also known as Little Poland.  (d. 1206).


1194-1203 (†) Regent Countess Adelaide de Toulouse of Carasconne (France)
In charge of the regency for Raymond Roger, who died 1209. 


1194-1216 Sovereign Countess Maria Albina d'Altavilla of Lecce (Italy)
Or Aberia or Elvira, was daughter of King Tancredo of Sicily and Sibilla de Medina d'Acerra, and she was held prisoner in Germany with her mother and sister, but they managed to escape. 1198 her mother married her to Gauthier III de Brienne, who was invested with her father's fief as Prince di Taranto. After his death in 1205 she ruled in the name of their newborn son, Gauthier IV (1205-51). She later married Giacomo, Seigneur of Sanseverino and after his death Tegrino di Modigliana, Pfalzgraf von Tuszien. Also mother of a daughter, she lived (circa 1185-1216).


1194-1207 Reigning Abbess Mathilde III de Bohême of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Born as Princess of Bohemia.

1195-96 and 1197-1203 De facto Ruler Empress  Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is today Greece and Turkey)
Also know as Kamatera. She married the later Emperor Alexios III Angelos, who deposed her brother, Isaac II Angelos assisted by her, who had organized a party of aristocratic supporters. She took control of the palace and quelled the opposition herself, securing the accession of her husband to the throne by wholesale bribery. She was a dominating woman with a talent for politics, and she virtually ruled the Empire in the name of Alexios III, who was concerned primarily with pleasure and idle pursuits. She issued commands herself and even altered Alexios' decrees when it suited her. They were criticized for their love of finery and the enrichment of their relatives at state expense. Her own brother, Basil Kamateros, and her son-in-law, Andronikos Kontostephanos, accused her of adultery with one of her ministers, Vatatzes. Her husband believed the allegations and had Vatatzes executed, and she was stripped of her imperial robes and banished to a convent at Nematarea in October 1196. However, her relatives convinced Alexios to reinstate her, and she was recalled six months later in spring 1197. In 1203, faced with the Fourth Crusade and the return of his nephew, Alexios IV Angelos, her husband fled Constantinople with a magnificent treasure and some female relatives, including his daughter Eirene. She was left behind and was immediately imprisoned by the new regime. Alexios IV was soon strangled by Alexios Doukas Mourtzouphlos, the lover of her daughter Eudokia, who then proclaimed himself emperor as Alexios V. In April 1204 she fled the city along with her daughter and Alexios V, and they made their way to Mosynoupolis, where her husband had taken refuge. He had Alexios V blinded and abandoned to the crusaders, who had him executed. Together with her husband she fled across Greece to Thessalonica and Corinth, but they were finally captured by Boniface of Montferrat and imprisoned. In 1209 or 1210 they were ransomed by their cousin Michael I of Epirus, and she spent the remainder of her life in Arta. Mother of 3 children, she lived (ca.1155-1211).


1195-1204 Hereditary Countess Palatine Agnes Hohenstaufen of the Rhein (Germany)
The Pfalzgräfin by the Rhine was married to Heinrich IX der Welf. 
Of Bavaria. Her son was the later Heinrich X of Bavaria and Sachsen. She was daughter of Duke Magnus von Sachsen.

Ermeside II of Luxembourg 1196-1247 Sovereign Countess Ermensinde II van Namur of Luxembourg, Durbuy and Laroche
In 1186, Henri IV was an old man who expected to die without heirs. He had already named BoudewijnV, Count of Hainault (and later also of Flanders) as his successor. Then his daughter Ermensinde was born. He made her his heir
instead, and a war of succession broke out. The outcome was that Ermensinde became Countess of Luxembourg, Durby and Laroche, and BoudewijnV's second son Philippe became Count of Namur. She was first married to Thibaut I, Count of Bar-Mousson and then to Walram IV, "Duke of Limburg", and trough this marriage Luxembourg and Limburg were politically
reunited. After Walram's death, Countess Ermensinde ruled Luxembourg alone for another 20 years, and lived (1186-1247).


1196-1261 Hereditary Sheriff and 3rd Countess Ela d'Everux of Salisbury  (United Kingdom)
1226-28 and 1131-36 Countess of Wiltshire
1240-57 Abbess of Lacock
Daughter of William d'Everux, Earl of Salisbury, she was married to William Longspee, Earl of Salisbury by the right of his wife (d. 1226), natural son of king Henry II. She and her husband each laid a foundation stone of the new Salisbury Cathedral. During one of his long journeys abroad, when others feared he had been lost, she refused to marry any of the suitors who had their eye on her fortune and steadfastly believed in her vision of his return. She founded two religious houses in his memory, one for men at Hinton Charterhouse and the other for women at Lacock. She joined Lacock Abbey as a nun in 1238, and in 1241 became its first abbess. She lived (1187-1261).


1196-1223 Countess Abbess Mechthild I zu Wohldenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Pope Innocence III. placed the chapter under Papal protection in 1206 and finishes the century old dispute with the Bishop of Hildesheim.


Circa 1196-circa 1204 Dame Abbesse Cècile II of Remiremont (France) 

The chapter was the most illustrious monastery in whole of Europe. It was founded ca 620 and transferred to its present location in 818. The act of 1070 whereby the abbey became directly dependent of the emperor is probably a falsification - it was probably much earlier that this statute was achieved. The Abbess, who was elected among the highest nobility, was probably granted the title of Princesse d'Empire - Princess of the Holy Roman Empire in 1290.


From 1197 Sovereign Countess Lukarde von Leiningen of Leiningen (Germany)
Succeeded father, Emich IV von Leiningen and married to Count Simon II von Saarbrücken. Mother of three sons - of whom one was count of Saarbrücken, one count of Leiningen and the third, became bishop of Worms.


1197-1213 Sovereign Countess Marie of Montpellier (France)
Married to Pedro III de Aragón. They engaged in a power struggle about the control of her country. 


1197-after 1200 Sovereign Countess Alix de France of Véxin (France)
Successor of her sister, Marguerite, who was given the county as a dowry in 1160. She was first engaged to the heir to the English throne, Richard, also son of her father's ex-wife Leonore of Aquitaine, but instead married Guillaume II, Count de Ponthieu and Montreuil. She might have had a son who died in infancy, and a daughter, Marie de Ponthieu, who succeeded her father in 1221. Alix lived (ca 1160-after 1200). 

Ludmilla of Bohemia 1197-1204 Regent Dowager Countess Ludmilla of Bohemia of Bogen-Windberg (Germany)
When her first husband, Adalbert IV died of the wounds received in the a crusade, their three sons; Berthold III (circa 1190-1218), Liutpold, Provost in Regensburg (d. 1221) and Adalbert V. (d. 1242), were still minors and she was in charge of the county. Six years later he married Duke Ludwig I. von Bayern (1174-1231), the former enemy of her husband, who took great care of her sons, and secured their inheritance. In her second marriage she was mother of Duke Otto II. of Bayern (1206-53). She was daughter of Duke Friederich of Bohemia and Elisabeth of Hungary, and lived (circa 1170-1240).


1197-1218 Reigning Abbess Heilka IV von Rotheneck of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her surname might also have been von Rothenegg, and her family could have originated from Grindelwald in Switzerland.

'Hojo Masa-ko as a nun 1199-1202 Head of the Council of Regency Hōjō Masa-Ko of Japan
1203-25 Shōgun-Regent
Seized the reins of the shogunate after the death of her husband, the first shogun Yoritomo Minamoto. She quickly manoeuvred her own family, the Hojo clan, into regency over her son Yoriie. Initially she was leader of the 13 person Regency Council in a period without a Shogun, afterwards regent for son, Shōgun Sanetomo until 1219 and finally regent together with a man in another period without a Shogun. In her old age it was she who galvanized the shogunate army that crushed the forces of the Emperor Go-Toba in 1221. The Hojos remained as regents over all the successive Minamoto shoguns for the next century and a half. For this reason she, known as "Mother Shogun," has been referred to as the founder of the shogunate. She retired to a convent and died as a nun.


1199-1231 Sovereign Countess Guillermina Ramonida of Pallars-Sobirá (Spain)
Succeeded brother Guillermo II. First she ruled alone, then together with Guillermo IV, Lord de Erill (1204-16) and with Roger I, Vicomte de Couserans (1216-29). 


From 1199 Sovereign Countess Blance of Éureay (France)
The county is situated in Normandy.


Circa 1199-circa 1247 Governor Queen Bhagubai of three Large Regions in Karnataka (India)
In charge of three large regions in Karnataka, including modern Bijapur district and earned admiration of her king and overlord Singhana II.

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