United Kingdom Substates

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Substates

Also see United Kingdom Traditional Offices, United Kingdom Heads and United Kingdoms Ministers

Go to England, Kent Mercia, Norfolk, Orkney, Scotland V/Wales, Wessex and Isle of Wright

Around 1200 BCE. Queen Camilla of Lathium

Years 400 B.C. Queen Tamyris of a Celtic Tribe

Years 200 B.C. Queen Martia Proba of a Celtic Tribe

Circa 50-71 or 40-60 Queen Cartimandra of The Brigants (Brigantia)
Brigantia was a British tribe in northern England (Yorkshire), during the time of the Roman invasion of Britain. She ruled Brigantia from A.D. 41-60. 

60-61 Queen Boudicca of the Icener-Tribe in Norfolk
Boudica (or Boadicea) was the wife of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, a British tribe, at a time when Britain was a Roman province. She fought the Romans but in the end she lost, and. Boudica and her daughters escaped but then poisoned themselves rather than allow capture. She lived (15-61)


Kingdom of England

1196-1261 Countess and Sheriff of Salisbury Ela d'Evereux Longspee
1226-28 and 1131-36 Countess of Wiltshire
1240-57 Abbess of Lacock
The daughter of
William d'Everux, Earl of Salisbury, she was married to William Longspee, Earl of Salisbury (d. 1226), natural son of Henry II. She lived (1187-1261)

1216-18 Sheriff of Lincolnshire Lady Nicola de la Hay
Appointed Sheriff by Prince John and King Henry III together with Phillip Mar of Nottingham. She was married to Gerad de Camville and succeeded her father as Lady de la Hay. She lived (circa 1160-ca.1218)

1338-77 Lord Marshal of England, Margaret of Norflolk
Jointly with the Lord High Constable she headed the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry, although the Earl Marshall's connection with heraldry came about almost accidentally. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, which was concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom, booty and soldiers' wages, and including the misuse of armorial bearings. The Marshall, as eighth Officer of State, has to organise coronations and the State Opening of Parliament.

1373-99  Hereditary Constable of England Eleanor de Bohun, Hereditary Countess of Essex
Daughter of Humphrey de Bohun (1342-73). Her husband Thomas of Woodstock was recognised as Constable of England, de iure uxoris. He was created Earl of Buckingham in 1377 and succeeded as Earl of Essex 1380, in right of his wife after she came of age. He was created Duke of Gloucester in 1385 and was murdered in 1397. Her daughter, Anne of Woodstock, became Countess of Buckinham, Hereford and Northhamton in 1399 in succession to her aunt, Mary de Bohun and her husband, King Henry IV of England. Eleanor lived (circa 1366-99)

1643-76 Hereditary High Sheriff Lady Anne Clifford of Westmoreland 



Kingdom of Kent

664-66 Regent Dowager Queen Sexburga of East Anglia
The eldest daughter of King Anna of East Anglia and his second wife, Saewara. She married King Erconbert of Kent, who died of the "yellow plague" that desolated England in AD 664 and, in widowhood, Sexburga was regent on behalf of her son, Egbert I. Afterwards she became abbess of Minister-in-Sheppey and later of Ely, where her sister, St. Etheldreda of Ely had been Abbess. Another sister and both of her daughters; Ermengilda and Ercongota were Saint and the sam was the case of her grandchildren; St. Werburga of Chester, St. Wulfade and St. Rufinus. She lived (circa 636-around 700).


Kingdom of Mercia

Circa 772-98 Co-reigning Queen Cynethryth
Together with husband, King Offa

911-918 Sovereign Lady Æthelflæd of Mercians
Also known as Ethelfleda, Eþeleda, Aethelfled, Æthelfleda or Æthelflæd) she became ruler after her husband, Aethelred or Ethelred, Earl of Mercia, died after the Battle of Tettenhall, she became ruler of the territory. She was a formidable military leader and tactician. She ruled for five years from the newly fortified capital at Stafford, and under her reign, it is likely that the English county of Staffordshire first came into being. She fortified her existing borders and re-took Derby. She died in 918, and is buried at Gloucester. She was joint lady of the Mercians along with her young daughter Aelfwynn, who was later deposed by King Edward the Elder, Æthelflæd's brother. She was daughter of King Alfred of Wessex and lived (872-918).

918-20 Sovereign Lady Ælfwyn of Mercians
Also known as Aelfwynn, she succeeded her mother, Lady Æthelflæd. Chroniclers have noticed the right of Aelfwynn so precisely as to leave no doubt concerning her claim; and this fact is of considerable value in showing that, contrary to the practice of other Teutonic nations, the sovereign authority amongst the Anglo-Saxons might descend to a female. But her uncle, King Edward of Wessex, occupied the town and received the submission of the Mercians, and in December of the same year, he deprived her "of all authority among the Mercians" and took her away to Wessex, where she seems to have spend the rest of her life in a nunnery. (d. 1007?).



Duchy Norfolk

1338-99 Duchess Margaret

1476-91 Countess Anne Mowbray


County of Orkney 

954-55 and 976-77 Countess Regnant Gunnhilda

Around 1130 Countess Margaret Håkonsdatter
She was married to Madoch, Earl of Athol. A son was born 1130, and she was born around 1108.

Circa 1329-circa 53 Malise

1737-56 2nd Countess Anne Hamilton of Orkney
She was married to William O'Brien, 4th Earl of Inchiquin. Mother of four sons who all died, and succeeded by daughter. She was titlular Countess and did not reside on the Orkney Islands.

1756-91 3rd Countess Mary O'Brien of Orkney
She was Married to Murrough O'Brien, 1st Marquis of Thomond. 

179?-1831 4th Countess Mary O'Bryen of Orkney


Kingdom of Scotland

1234-90 Lady Devorguilla MacDowall of Galloway
Her father, Lord Alan FitzRoland of Galloway, was the last of the MacFergus dynasty of quasi-independent Lords of Galloway  in the south-west of Scotland. He was also hereditary Constable of Scotland. When he died his possessions were devided among her and her two surviving sisters. She passed the Lordship of Galloway and heirship of the crown to her son John I Balliol, King of Scotland (1992-96), by her husband, John, 5th Baron de Balliol and her son John Balliol was king of Scotland for four years. Devorguilla endowed a college for the poor which later became Balliol College. Her mother was Margaret of Huntingdon, the daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, grand-son of the Scottish king David I. She lived (circa 1210-90).

1286-90 Queen Margaret, The Maid of Norway
She was daughter of Princess Margaret and succeeded her grandfather King Alexander III of Scotland. Her death on the way from Norway to Scotland meant civil war over the succession in, since there were no other close heirs to the throne

1390-1401 Queen Anabella Drumond
She was very powerful during the reign of her husband, Robert Johan Stuart of Kyle, who was partly paralyzed. In 1398 she had her son, David, Duke of Rothsay appointed regent. Husband succeeded by second son, James I. 

1437-39 Regent Dowager Queen Joan Beaufort
Widow of James I and regent for son James II

1460-63 Regent Dowager Queen Maria de Guelders
Widow of James III and regent for son James III until her death

1513-14 Regent Dowager Queen Margaret Tudor
She was married to James IV of Scotland; daughter of Henry VII of England and sister of Henry VIII. Her husband was killed and she became regent for her infant son, James V. She lived (1489–1541).

1552-67/87 Queen Mary Stuart
She became Queen of Scotland when she was just six days old. At age five she was sent to France to be brought up in the French court, and eventually married King Francis II, who died the next year. A widow, Mary returned to Scotland where a series of politically unwise love affairs and her continued adherence to Catholicism in a Protestant country led to trouble and a revolt against her. Forced to flee to England for refuge, she now faced the fears of Queen Elizabeth I who saw her as a rival to her throne. Elizabeth kept Mary under a form of imprisonment for the next 19 years. Watched closely, she was implicated in a series of conspiracies against Queen Elizabeth, and was executed.

1554-60 Regent Dowager Queen Mary de Guise
Married to  James V of Scotland and regent for her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots.  She lived (1515-60)

1717-58 18th Hereditary Lord High Constable and Knight Marischal of Scotland, The 14th Countess of Erroll
Mary Hay was the Senior Great Officer Royal Office of Scotland and Chief of the King's Household in Scotland. She succeeded to the title in 1717 when she also became Lady Hay and Baroness of Stain, 23rd Chief of the Hays (since 1171) and Mac Garaidh Mhar (a celtic title) etc., etc. She succeeded her brother and was succeeded by her sister's grandson.

1824-40 Head of the Sovereign Family, Titular Queen Mary III and II of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith
Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina di Savoia was the eldest daughter of Don Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia, Duke of Aosta, later king of Sardinia and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este. 1812 Mary Beatrice married her uncle, Archduke Francis of Austria, Duke of Modena, with special dispensation for the marriage was received from the Holy See. After her father's death she was recognized by the Jacobites as "Queen Mary III and II". She was called "Queen Mary II" by those Jacobites who do not number Mary Stuart as Mary II of England. She lived (1792-1840).

1875-1919 Head of the Sovereign Family, Titular Queen Mary IV and III of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith
Marie Therese von Habsburg-Lothringen, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary-Bohemia and Modena, succeeded her uncle as claimant of the Jacobite throne of Scotland and England. Her grandmother was Mary III and II Beatrice of Modena (1824-40). Marie Therese descended from a sister of the last Stuart-kings of England and Scotland. She was married to Ludwig, King of Bavaria (1913-1918). Her grandson, Francis II, Duke of Bavaria has been claimant since 1996. His brother, Max Emanuel is heir and his oldest daughter, the Hereditary Princess Sophia von und zu Liechtenstein, is next in line for the succession. One of Marie Theresa's half-sisters by her mother's second marriage, Queen Maria-Cristina of Spain was regent for her son (1885-1902). Marie Therese had five children and lived (1849-1919).  

1941-78 27th Hereditary Lord High Constable and Knight Marischal of Scotland, The 23rd Countess of Erroll
Diana D. Hay was the Senior Great Officer Royal Office of Scotland and Chief of the Monarch's Household in Scotland, President of the Court of the Verge etc. etc. She succeeded to the title in 1941 when she also became Lady Hay and Baroness of Stain, 32th Chief of the Hays (since 1171) and Mac Garaidh Mhar (a celtic title). She was succeeded by her son, Martin Hay. She lived (1926-78)

Territorial Counties in Scotland

County of Athol

1211-37 4th Countess Isabella

1242-44 6th Countess Forflissa of Galloway

1244 7th Countess Ada Hastings

County of Mar

1377-88 Territorial Countess Margaret Mormaer of Mar, Lady Garioch
Succeeded her brother, Thomas Mormaer, 9th Earl of Mar (circa 1330-1377). She had married William, first Earl of Douglas, who was succeeded by their son, James. 2. Earl of Douglas and Earl of Mar and Garioch in right of his mother, and when he fell, leading the Scots at the battle of Otterburn. he was succeeded by her daughter, Isabel, who became owner of the Earldom of Mar and the Lordship of the Garioch and became the owner the unentailed lands of the House of Douglas.

Circa 1388-1408 Territorial Countess Isabel Douglas of Mar, Lady of Garioch
In 1390, Robert III. granted to his brother-in-law, Sir Malcolm Drummond, Lord of Mar in right of his wife, the 11th Countess, a licence to erect a tower on the lands of Castletown of Braemar. The King, in 1393, granted to Sir Malcolm by charter, forty pounds sterling per annum from the great custom of Aberdeen, until the King shall give him forty pounds worth of lands. In 1402 he was murdered  by Alexander Stewart. In the summer of 1404 Alexander Stewart captured her castle and forced her to sign a charter on August 12, 1404. She revoked the charter later that year, but on marrying him, she gave him the earldom for life; the King confirmed her last action the next year. She lived (c. 1360-1408)

1975- Margaret of Mar, 31st Countess of Mar
Member of the House of Lords from 1975 and a Deputy Speaker 1999–2007. The next in line are her daughter Susan of Mar, Mistress of Mar (1963-) and granddaughter Isabel of Mar (1991-)

 County of Sutherland

1515-35 10th Countess Elizabeth
She succeeded her brother John by "infeftment" of 1515 after a protracted lawsuit and some bloodshed, became Countess of Sutherland in her own right. She resigning the earldom to her eldest son Alexander, the ancestor of the family of Gordon, Earls of Sutherland. The earls would not bear the name of Sutherland again until William Sutherland, the 17th Earl, adopted it. She was succeeded in 1530 by her grandson, the 11th Earl ("Good John Earl"). (d. 1535).

1771-1839 19th Countess Elizabeth Gordon
She was one year old when her father, William, the 18th Earl of Sutherland, and her mother both died in 1766. In the lawsuit that followed, known as the "Sutherland Peerage Case", the old Sutherland house of Forse claimed superior rights, but the verdict was finally given in favor of the infant countess in 1771. Elizabeth married an Englishman, George Granville Leveson-Gower whose father, the Earl of Gower, was created the Marquess of Stafford, titles to which he himself succeeded in 1803. As the husband of a great landed heiress, to whose inheritance he added substantial acreages of his own at Trentham in Staffordshire and Lilleshall in Shropshire, Lord Stafford had considerable influence, becoming the 1st Duke of Sutherland. She lived (1765-1839).

1963-  24th Countess of Elizabeth Sutherland-Leveson-Gower
She succeeded her uncle, The 5th Duke of Sutherland, George Granville Sutherland, who held several ministerial offices. Her father, Lord Alistair Sutherland-Leveson-Gower M.C. who had died in 1921. She is married to Charles Janson and they have three sons and a daughter. The Dukedom was inherited by another male relative.

County Ross (Check this information)

1372-94/95 Countess Euphemia I Ross
First married to
John Randolph Earl of Moray and then to King Robert II of Scotland. Their son, David, Earl Palatine of Strathearn and Earl of Caithness (circa 1356-89) had one daughter and Euphemla, Countess Palatine of Steathearn and Countess of Caithness, which latter Earldom she resigned to her uncle, Walter Leslie

1402-15 Countess Eupemia II Leslie
In succssion to Alexander. After her death, the County was vacant until Johan Stewart, Earl of Buchan became Earl.

1424-36 Margaret Leslie

1908-68 Chief of Ross Miss Ross of Pitcalnie

Counties in England

1361-69 Heiress to the Palatinate of Lancaster Blanche of Grosmont
At the time of the death of her father, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, she received half of his lands, her husband and cousin, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Earl of Lincoln and Earl of Leicester. The influence associated with the titles would lead him to become Lord High Steward of England, and they became distinction the greatest landowner in the north of England. Her her elder sister, Maud, Countess of Leicester, inherited the other half of their father's land and after her death, it was reunited with John, whose second wife was the titular Queen Constanza of Castilla. Blanche died of Bubonic plague and lived  (circa 1345-69)

1373-99  Hereditary Constable of England Eleanor de Bohun,  Hereditary Countess of Essex
Daughter of Humphrey de Bohun (1342-73). Her husband Thomas of Woodstock was recognised as Constable of England, de iure uxoris. He was created Earl of Buckingham in 1377 and succeeded as Earl of Essex 1380, in right of his wife after she came of age. He was created Duke of Gloucester in 1385 and was murdered in 1397. Her daughter, Anne of Woodstock, became Countess of Buckinham, Hereford and Northhamton in 1399 in succession to her aunt, Mary de Bohun and her husband, King Henry IV of England. Eleanor lived (circa 1366-99)

1373-94 Hereditary Countess Mary de Bohun, of Northampton and Hereford
Second daughter of Humphry de Bohun, She was married to Henry, Earl of Derby, who was created Earl of Northampton and Earl of Hereford in right of his wife in 1384, and He succeeded in 1399 as king Henry IV of England. She died in childbed, and lived (circa 1369-94)

1399-1438 Anne of Woodstock, Countess of Buckingham, Hereford and Northampton,
Her father, Thomas, Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Buckingham  was murdered in 1397  and his brother, Humphrey de Bohun, Duke of Glouceste, died in 1399, and she inherited the lands and titles of the family and became a Countess in her owh right. She was first married to  Thomas, 3rd Earl of Stafford (d. 1392), secondly to  Edmund, 5th Earl of Stafford (d. 1403) and third to  Sir William Bourchier, Comte d'Eu (d. .1420). Succeeded by son,  Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford, who in 1444 was created duke of Buckingham. She lived (1383-1438)


Principality of Wales

Before 825 Queen Ethil of Gwynedd

.....Princess Nest of Deheubarth

....Queen Angharad Ferch Llewelyn of Powys

Before 825 Queen Angharad Ferch Maredudd of Powys

1107 Dame Mable FitzHamon of Gloucester-Glamorgan and Eurecy et Ste. Scolasse-sur-Sarthe (Normandy)
Her husband, Robert FitzRoy, Son of Henry I of England, was given title of Earl of Gloucester in 1121. He died 1147

1282-1337 Hereditary Princess Gwenllian de Montfort of Wales, Gwynedd and the royal family of Aberffraw
The last true born Princess of Wales was the daughter of Llywelyn the Last and his cousin Eleanor de Montfort, daughter of Simon de Montfort. Her mother died in childbirth at the palace of Pen-y-Bryn, in Abergwyngregyn near Bangor, Gwynedd on 12 June 1282, and her father was killed at Irfon Bridge a few weeks later, becoming therefore the only child of the marriage. There were no sons to inherit the title of Prince of Wales, but as the daughter of Prince Llywelyn, hhe was the heiress of the Princes of Gwynedd and the royal family of Aberffraw. She thereby was the Princess of Wales and as a result represented considerable danger to the king of England. Were it not for their close family ties it is likely that the king would have arranged for her too to be killed. Instead, the king, Edward I, had her hauled off to Sempringham Convent in Lincolnshire, where she spent over 50 years incarcerated. Edward kept the title of 'Prince of Wales' for the crown, bestowing it upon his son Edward who was crowned in Caernarfon in 1301 aged 17 years. Hence the title passed as a grace title bestowable by the English monarchy. She lived (1282-1337).

1295-1307 Joan of Acre, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales

1314-17 Eleanore de Clare, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales

1445-49 Anne Beauchamps, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales

1449-50 Anne Beauchamps-Neville, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales
She succeeded her brother's daughter

Kingdom of Wessex (or Cenwalh)

67-74 Queen Sexburh

67-74 Queen Sexburh

Lordship of Isle of Wight

1262-93 Isabelle de Devon, Dame of Isle of Wright
After her death, the island passed to the English throne. In 1260-62 she had been regent of the County of Aumale in France and the English counties of Holderness, Skipton and Cockermouth for son.

1896-1944 Governor Princess Beatrice of Great Britain



Last update 02.11.14