Syria Substates

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Syria Heads of Substates

Also see Syria Heads and Syria Ministers


1218 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Seljuks in Aleppo
She was widow of Al-Zahir and was regent for their son al-Aziz as ruler of one of the Seljuk Principalities that developed n Syria, Asia Minor and Kerman as the Seljuk Empire declined after 1091. Her troops was involved in the fight against the crusaders.

From 1237 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Selsjuks in Aleppo (Syria)
for Sultan al-Nazir, fighting with the Latin kings and counts in the area.


From 1111 Regent Dowager Princess Constance de France of Antiochia
Widow of Bohemond I d'Hauteville of Antiochiaia and Taranto, she was regent for son Bohemond II (1107/09-1130). At some point she was taken prisoner by Grimoald, Lord of Bary, until Pope Calixt II managed to have her released in 1120. The daughter of King Philippe I of France (1053-60-1108), she divorced her first husband Hugues I de BLois of Troyes, and lived (1078-1124/26).

1130-1163 Sovereign Princess Constance I Antiochia, Dame of Latakia and Jabala 
The only child of Bohemond II and Alix of Jerusalem. After the death of her first husband, Renaud I de Poitou (1099-49), she resited calls for her to remarry quickly. Instead she ruled jointly with the Patriarch Aimery, and first allied herself with Emperor Manuel I Comnenos of Constantiople and then with her uncle, king Baldouin of Jerusalem. In 1153 she married Renaud de Chatillon (1125-87), who was taken prisoner in 1160 leaving her with the sole government again. With the help of Manuel - to whom she married her daughter Xenia-Maria (Regent of The Byzantine Empire 1180-82) - she fought off attempts to have her son Bohemond III (1144-1201) installed as ruler with the Patriarch as regent, but when he turned 18 in 1163 the people rioted, she was deposed and sent in exile. Her two other daughters were Agnes, who was married to king Bela III of Hungary and Alix who was married to Margrave Azzo VI d'Este. Constance lived (1126-1163/67).

1130-36 Regent Princess Alice of Jerusalem of Antiochia
1130-after 37 Dame of Latakia and Jabala
Regent for daughter Constance, against the oppsition of the nobles and other pretenders to the regency after the death of her husband Boemond II. After her daughter's marriage she withdrew to her dorwy. Alice was daughter of King Badouin II and Morphia de Meltiene. She lived (1108-after 37).

1275 Regent Dowager Princess Sibylle of Armenia of Antiochia and Tripoli 
After the death of her husband, Boemond VI, King Hugo, claimed the post of regent of Tripoli as the oldest adult of the faily, but she had already taken over the regency for her 14 year old son, Boemond VII, according to the ancient traditions of the family. She evacuated her son to the court of her brother, Leo III of Armenia, and appointed Bishop Bartholomæus of Tortosa to reign the city in her name. Boemond died in 1287 and was succeeded by his sister, Lucia, but she lived in Italian Apulia, and the nobles and citizen of Tripoli were not keen on a foreign Princess as their ruler, so they offered Sibylle the County of Tripoli. She accepted and wrote Bartholomæus asking him to act as her representative, but the letter was intercepted, the nobles withdrew their offer, declared that the dynasty had been deposed and a Commune had taken it's place, but the following year Lucia arrived and took the position of Princess and Countess. Sibylle withdrew to her brother's court in Armenia. She was daughter of Queen Zabel of Armenia and King Hethum of Armenia and lived (circa 1240-90).

1288-99 Sovereign Countess Lucia de Poitiers of Tripoli (Lebanon)
1288-89 Sovereign Princess of Antiochia (Syria)
Also known as Lucy, she succeeded brother and ruled jointly with husband, Naroj de Toucy, Lord of Terza, Admiral of Sicily, Captain-General of Albania-Durazzo and Morea. Because of the advancing Mameluks, Antiochiaia was limited to the city and a small costal line. The territory was under siege and at the end the Templars had to give up, and she was deposed, but was permitted to retain two country-houses. She lived (circa 1265-1299)



554... Regent Queen Hind al-Hirah
She was a Christian Princess of either Ghassan or Kindah origin who married Mundhir al Mundhir III, whose mother was Mariyah or Mawiya. He raided Byzantine Syria and challenged the kingdom of Ghassan. After his death, she was regent for their son, Amr ibn-Hind, and she ruled as an independent and resourceful Queen. 


268-71 Queen Zenobia
She was wife of King Odenathus, born in Palmyra (now Tadmor, Syria). Following the assassination of her husband, in which she is believed to have been implicated, Zenobia succeeded to power as regent for their young son. Within three years, she extended her rule to all of Syria, to Egypt, and to most of Asia Minor, ostensibly in alliance with Rome. In 271, however, because of Zenobia's aggressiveness in the East, the Roman emperor Lucius Domitius Aurelian took up arms against her. After gaining control of nearly all of Zenobia's domain, Aurelian besieged the city of Palmyra. It fell, and Zenobia was captured and taken to Rome. Later she was given an estate at Tibur (now Tivoli, Italy), where she spent the rest of her life in pensioned retirement. A beautiful and brilliant woman, Zenobia is remembered for her ruthless ambition.


Circa 1260-before 1235 BC Regent Dowager Queen Ahatmilku
According to the incriptions, King Niqmepa’ was married to a Princess of Amurru called Ahatmilku - or Ahat-Milku. She was very wealthy. This queen was just as “ruthless” as her husband. When she was already quite old and a widow she punished two of her sons, Hiśmiśarruma and Aradśarruma, who had rebelled against their brother, the ruling king ‘Ammithtamru. The two were banished to Alashia (Cyprus), but their mother took care to provide sufficient support for them, including a substantial amount of silver and gold, before they left. It is sometimes surmised that she removed them because they opposed his election to the throne. She must have been at least 90 years old when her sons were transferred from Ugarit to Alashia. The queen mother was held in high esteem and wielded considerable power. She ruled the country when the king was absent but also played a very important role when her son was present. The influential position of queen Ahatmilku may have been related to the fact that she was a king-maker and had helped Ammithtamru II to accede to the throne. She acted as regent for her son during his youth. At Ugarit the queen mother was involved in politics. She was consulted in diplomatic matters and was asked to intercede with the king. She was also involved in business. Ahatmilku was the dominant queenly figure of Ugarit through most of the 13th century - from circa 1313-before 1235 BEC.

Circa 1200 BCE Possible Co-Regent Queen Tharriyelli
An especially powerful queen mother was Tharriyelli (Śarelli), widow of Ibiranu. She continued to hold sway during the reigns of his successors Niqmaddu III (her son) and ‘Ammurapi (possibly her grandson) 1235–1200. The historian Freu assumes that she was a co-regent in Ammmurapi’s early years. She replaced queen Ahatmilku as the dominant queenly figure of Ugarit in the last decades of the city.


1236-42 Regent Dowager Princess Dayfa Khatun bint al-Adil Muhammad
Dayfat Hatun was the widow of ad az-Zahir Ghazi Ghiyath ud-Din I, who ruled (1186-1216) and after the death of her son, al-'Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din II (1216-1236) she became regent for her grandson al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din (1236-1260). The capital of the Kingdom was Aleppo, an ancient city in northwestern Syria, about 130 km east of Antiochia.


Last update 27.09.09