Italy Substates

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Italy Substates

See also Italy Heads and Italy Ecclesiastical Territory




Around 1646 Countess Regnant Maria Cristina di Altemps of Altemps    

She was daughter of Angelica de' Medici and Count Gianpetro di Altemps and married Ipollito, Duke Lante delle Rovere.


1028-29, 1034-circa 40 Joint Regent Duchess and Patricia Maria di Capua
Deposed her husband, Sergius II of Amalfi together with her son, Manso II, while her other son, Giovanni fled with his father to Constantinople. The following year Giovanni returned and deposed her and Manso. 5 years later they siezed power again and she took the title of ducissa et patricissa. It is indicative of her power that Manso received no titles, not even from Byzantium, as his father and brother had before him. In 1038, her brother Pandulf, who had helped her gain power, was deposed in Capua and Giovanni was able to return to Amalfi, where he deposed Masso and reconciled with her, who subsequently joined him in blinding Manso and exiling him to the Torre del Gallo Lungo. She was daughter of Pandulf II of Benevento and Capua and lived (985–circa 1040)


1085-88 Regent Dowager Duchess Sikelgaita di Salerno
Married Roberto Giscard, Duke di Apulia, and was a close political aide, and always accompanied him in battle. She is rumored to have been involved in the poisoning of her husband. But anyhow, her brother-in-law, Gandcount Roger of Sicilia supported her in becoming regent for son, Roger Borsa. Mother of 10 children, and lived (circa 1140-90).

From 1111 Regent Dowager Duchess Adela de Flanders of Apulia  
Also known as Ailanda of Apuglia, she was heiress of Robert I the Fries of Flanders. First married King Knud III of Denmark, and after his death Roger B.. of Apulia. She was regent for their son Guillaume II (circa 1095-1127). Her oldest son was Carel I. of Flanders (circa 10851127), who was killed. She lived (circa 1064-1115).


1323-28 Regent Dowager Countess Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern of Görz (Germany)
1323-26 and 1335-38 Regent of Treviso (Italy)
1332-34 Captain General of Aquileia and Administrator of Friuli (Italy)

After the death of her second husband, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, she was regent for son Johann Heinrich IV. Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). She was daughter of Duke Stephan I of Nieder-Bayern and Jutta von Schweidnitz, and lived (1302-60).


1559-67 and 1580-82 Stadtholder Margaretha de Parma of The Netherlands 

1559-67 Governor of Franche-Comté
1572-86 Perpetual Governor of L'Aquila  
Also known as Madama or Margarita de Austria, her full title was er full title was Archduchess of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Princess of Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily. She was daughter of Emperor Charles V and his mistress Johanna van den Gheynst. Her first husband was Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Firenze (1510-37), the son of  the Black servant Simonetta da Collavechio and Cardinal Giulio de Medici ( the later Pope Clement VII), was finally assassinated a few months after their wedding in 1536. She then received the titles of Feudal Duchess of Borbona, Penne and Posta and Feudal Lady of Campli, Castel Sant'Angelo (now Castel Madama), Civita Ducale (now Cittaducale), Leonessa, Montereale and Ortona, Lady of Amatrice, Borbona, Posta which she held until her death. In 1538 she was married to Ottavio Farnese (1525-86), whose father was given the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza by his father, Pope Paul III. In 1545 she became mother of twins. Her nephew, King Felipe II of Spain, appointed her Governor-General of the Netherlands, and she proved to be an able administrator, but resigned after the Duke of Alba's crushing of the Dutch opposition against the Spanish rule. She then returned to Italy and was governor of L'Aquila by her brother. Her son Alessandro Farnese was Governor-General of the Netherlands until 1580 when he was replaced by her. After his return, she was kept a virtual prisoner in Namur, until she was allowed to return to Italy in 1583 where she died three years later. She lived (1522-86).

Arborea in Sardinia

1383-1404 Judicissa Eleonora de Capraia of Arborea and Gallura, Countess of Goceano
Defeated the rebels that had killed her brother, Ugone III, and became regent to her infant son Federigo. For the next 4 the state was at war with Aragon, which lost much of its possessions to her and was trying to reclaim the island. She optained almost all of the island during this war. After rallying Sardinian forces, she was able to negotiate a favourable treaty. Federigo died during this war, and was succeeded by her younger son, Mariano V. An alliance was formed with Genoa, and Arborea maintained its independence until 1409 or 1410. She composed the Carta de Logu, a body of laws which came into force in 1395. They were considered to be far in advance of the laws of other countries, the penalty for most crimes being a fine, and the property rights of women were preserved. Many of these laws remained in force in Sardinia until Italian unification in 1861. She was daughter of Mariano IV of Arborea and Timbora de Roccaberti, married to Brancaleone Doria, a Sardinian nobleman, in order to strengthen local alliances, and mother of a number of children. She died of the plague and lived (circa 1347-1404).



1479-84 Regent Ippolita Maria Sforza
Ruled for her brother Ludovico il Moro (1452-1508). She was the daughter of Bianca Maria Visconti and the condottiero Francesco I Sforza. Ippolita was married to of King Afonso II d'Aragon of Napoli and she was mother of Isabella of Aragon, who later became Duchess of Bari and mother of Polish Queen Bona Sforza. She lived (1446-84).

Until 1524 Princess Isabella de Aragon of Bari

1524-57 Sovereign Princess Bona Sforza of Bari, Rossano, Crottaglie, Ostuni and Monteserico  
Her mother, Isabella de Aragon, had provided Bona with an excellent education. She read classic masterpieces and studied law and history and was fluent in Spanish and Latin. Bona married the 51-year old recently widowed King Sigmund I of Poland. It did not take long before she got involved in politics and economics, and she spent a lot of energy on recovering royal properties that had been in the hands of creditors. She increased the revenues and raised taxes, and remained familiar with the current affairs of Bari and Rosano that legally remained in her hands. Emperor Felipe II was putting a great deal of pressure on Bona to pass her properties in Apulia and Calabria to Spain. In 1556 she returned to lItaly and was warmly welcomed by her people, but one of her favourite advisors, Gian Baptista Pappacoda, was a Spanish spy. In November 1557 she turned very ill and she could not return to Poland as planned. Pappacoda tricked the Queen to change her will in favour of Felipe II. When her health improved, she tried to change the will, but she was poisoned by Pappacode, and everything she had owned was stolen and no will could be imposed. She lived (1494-1557).


677-circa 682 Regent Dowager Duchess Theuderata di Friuli of Benevento
When her husband, Romuald I died, she was first regent for their oldst son, Grimoald and then for the second, Gisulf I from 680 - he died in 705.

751-58 Dowager Duchess Scaunipirga of Benevento
Ruled alone after the death of her son Gisolfo II.

981/83-991 Regent Dowager Duchess Alora
For Pandolfo II


1464-1506 De-facto Ruler Ginevra Sforza
Totally dominated her second husband, Giovanni II Bentivoglio. Also her first husband, Sante Bentivoglio, ruled the state 1454 until his death in 1462. She was illegitemate daughter of Alessandro Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, and she lived (1440-1507).


Cagliari in Sardinia

1214-32 Judicca Benedetta of Cagliari (in Sardinia) and Marchessa de Massa (Italy)
Consecrated in 1214 by Riccus, Archbishop of Cagliari, in the presence of the higher clergy and the grandees. She swore an oath not to diminish the territory of the giudicato, nor to alienate its castles, nor to make foreign alliances without their consent. Soon after she married Barisone III of Arborea, who was imprisoned by her father. He took the dynstic name "Torchitorio V" and they ruled their two giudicati jointly, each being cited in the acts of the other in their own giudicato. She favoured natives for positions in her government over Pisans and the economic benefits of Sardinian over the Republic of Pisa. In 1215 Lambert Visconti, judge of Gallura, landed a large army near Cagliari and took the dominating hilltop of S. Gilla, fortifying it. She was subsequently forced to flee her capital for the interior and in 1217, Lamberto's brother, Ubaldo I Visconti, forced her to accept terms surrendering Cagliari. She received the giudicato back as fief from the consul of Pisa. However, violence between Sardinians and Pisans escalated in Cagliari and she and her husband made an alliance with Comita III of Torres and the Republic of Genoa in hopes of expelling the Pisans. They found support in Pope Honorius III. After her husband died in 1218, she was forced to marry Lamberto, but the pope immediately pronounced his annulment. In 1224 she renewed the oath of homage to the Holy See to Goffredo, the papal legate. Two years later war began again with Ubald, and she married twice more, both times without papal permission. Her third husband was Enrico di Ceola, a Pisan of the Capraia family who soon gained papal favour. Her fourth husband was Rinaldo de Glandis and their marriage was declared valid. Nevertheless, violence in Cagliari forced her to move to the castle of Santa Igia and then to Massa, her ancestral home. After her death Pope Gregory IX had given Massa and Potenzolo to Ugo di Procaria, while Cagliari was divied between the Visconti, Capraia, and Donoratico, Pisan families. Her heir was Guglielmo succeeded under the regency of her sister, Agnes and her husband, Marianus of Torres, held the regency.
She was the daughter Guglielmo I of Cagliari and Adelasia, and lived (circa 1194 – 1232/1233)

1233-35 Acting Judicissa Agnese of Cagliari (in Sardinia)
1333-39 Margravine Regnant of Massa e Carrara (Italy)
After the death of her sister, Bernadetta, she took over as regent for her under-age nephew, Guiglermo II Salusio V of Arborea, who reigned until 1253, together with her husband, Marianus II of Logudoro.


1527-35 Sovereign Duchess Giulia da Varano of Camerino
Succeeded to the title when her father died of
the plague, but was deposted by a male relative. She was daughter of Giovanni Maria, Lord and 12th Pontific Vicar of Camerino and Count since 1503 Duke of Camerino, who was deposed in 1521, reappointed the following year and confirmed by papal bull with the right of succession for her in 1524, and of Caterina Cybo. Married to Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke di Urbino (1514-74), and lived (1523-47).

 County of Conversano
1647-65 Regent Countess Isabella Filomarino
1665-79 Joint Regent (Dowager Countess)
She was in charge of the regency during the imprisonment of her husband, Giangirolamo II Acquaviva d'Aragona (1600-1665) in Spain and then jointly with her daughter-in-law, Caterina di Capua, for grandson, Guilio II (1665-91) after her son, Cosimo (d.1665), 8th Duke de Nardò, was killed in a duel after 10 days as Count of Duke. She was also Baroness de Castellabate and daughter of Tommaso Filomarino, 1st Prince della Rocca d'Aspro lived (1600-79).

1665-79 Joint Regent Dowager Countess Caterina di Capua
1679-83/85 Regent
Her husband, Cosimo (d.1665), was killed in a duel after 10 days as Count of Duke and she became regent for her son, Guilio II (1665-91) jointly with her mother-in-law, Isabella Filomarino, who had been regent since 1647. She was daugher of Fabrizio, Prince della Riccia and Count d'Altavilla and lived (1626-1691).

Monsteray of Conversano

See more here: Italy Ecclesiastical


1583-circa 93 Dowager Margravine Constanza Colonna
Widow of Marchese Francesco Sforza da Caravaggio. Daughter of
Don Marcantonio II, 3th Duke of Paliano, Gran Connestabile del Regno di Napoli and Felice Orsini.

1697-1717 Sovereign Margravine Bianca-Maria Gonzaga of Caravaggio, Countess of Galliate  
She married J.J. von Sinzendorff (Giovanni Guglielmo) and was succeeded by her daughter, Bianca Maria von Sinzendorff, 10th Marchesa di Caravaggio e Contessa di Galliate (1717-83), who married Don Filippo Domenico Doria Sforza Visconti, Marchese Doria, Marchese di Caravaggio e Conte di Galliate maritali nomine, Patrizio Genovese, Cavaliere dell’Ordine del Tosone d’Oro 1753, Generale delle Armate Imperiali.



1532-39 and 1539-44 Regent Dowager Countess Ippolita Cybo of Cajazzo, Serre and Persano
After the death of her husband, Roberto
Robert Ambrogio da Sanseverino, Markgrave of Colorno, it seems that she was first regent for her sons and then for her daughter Maddalena). he was daughter of Francesco Cybo, Count Palatine of the Lateran, and Maddalena de' Medici., and lived (1503-62)

Circa 1539-51 Reigning Countess Maddalena Sanseverino of Cajazzo, Lady of Serre and Persano
Apparently succeeded her brother. Her mother, Ippolita Cybo had been regent from 1532 and took over again after a few months in 1551. Married to Giulio Cesare Rossi in 1539, who became Count of Cajazzo (d. 1554) and was succeeded by son. She lived (circa 1520-1551)



1180-87 Dowager Countess Adelivia
She was widow of Roberto II Bassavillä, the 4th Count of the County.

1356-60 Sovereign Countess Isabella de Brienne
Also Countess of Brienne and Lecce, Dame de Ramerupt and Titluar Duchess of Athens after brother, Gautier, was killed in the battle by Poitiers, when she and her husband, Gautier IV d'Enghien, Seigneur de Tubize et Lembeek,  the family possessions in France and Italy. She was the only daughter of Duke Gautiers V de Brienne and Jeanne de Chatillon and succeeded. She lived (ca.1300/05-60).

1394–97 Marguerite of Enghien
Also Dame d'Enghien Succeeded her father, Louis and reigned jointly with her husbands Pierre des Baux, Jacopo di Sanseverino and Jean de Luxembourg (Giovanni di Lussemburgo, Count de Brienne, Lord of Beauvoir and was succeeded by her son Louis de Luxemburg-St.Pol, de Brienne et di Conversano

1434 Maria d'Enghien
overeign Countess of Lecce 1384-1414, and Sovereign Princess of Taranto 1406-07.

1463-... Caterina Orsini del Balzo, Lady di Casamassima and Turi
Her father,
Giovanni Antonio Orsini del Balzo, succeeded his parents, Raimondo and Maria d'Enghien as Prince of Tarent, Duke of Bari, Count of Lecce, Acerra, Soleto, Conversano, Matera and Ugento, but since he was not married, most of his lands were confiscated after his death, but her sister, Maria Conquesta, inherited the County of Ugento. Catarina was married to Giuliantonio Acquaviva d'Aragona, 7. Duke of Atri. The name of their mother is unknown. She was mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter, who founded different branches of the Acqaviva d'Aragona-family.

1619-36 Caterina Acquaviva d' Aragona
Succeeded her father, Belisario II as the 6th Duchess di Nardò and inherited Conversano jointly with her husband, Giulio Acquaviva d' Aragona, 2. Duke di Noci.

1655-65 Regent Isabella Filomarino
Baroness di Castellabate in her own right, she took over the regency when her husband, Giangirolamo II Acquaviva d'Aragona, count of Conversano (1600-26-65), was imprisoned by the Spanish rulers of Napoli 1655-65, she was an energetic and competent ruler of the county, and the city became the center of renaissance culture. Her oldest son, Cosimo Acquaviva d' Aragona, duca di Nardò, died 1665 and was succeeded by his oldest son, Giangirolamo Acquaviva d' Aragona, 9th duca di Nardò, who again was succeeded by his brother, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d' Aragona, as Duke di Nardò. She was daughter of Tommaso Filomarino, 1 principe della Rocca d' Aspro, and lived (1600-79)

1691-1710 Regent Dorotea Acquaviva d'Aragona

Her husband Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d'Aragona, Duke of Nardò and Noci, Count of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano died in January 1691 and her son, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva, was born a few months after and she was in charge of the feuds during his minority. She was daughter of sia Acquaviva d'Aragona, 14 duke d' Atri (1631-79). She (d. 1714).

1894-1972 Giulia Acquaviva d' Aragona
Also 25th Duchess di Atri, 17th duchessa di Nardò,and 41th  contessa di Conversano, and succeeded her father, Francesco Acquaviva d' Aragona, (1851-94), under the guardianship of her mother, Maria Zunica, 10th principessa di Cassano and 8th duquesa di Alessano (b. 1860), the daughter of Luisa Riario Sforza, Princess di Cassano and Duchess di Alessano. She was married to Giustiniano Perrelli-Tomacelli-Filomarino, 10th principe di Boiano and mother of two daughters and succeeded by the oldest, Anna Perrelli-Tomacelli-Filomarino, 6th principessa di Cassano. She lived (1887-1972).

1972-20001 Anna Perrelli-Tomacelli-Filomarino
Married to Camillo Imperiali and was succeeded the oldest of two daughter, Gennara Immacolata Michaela Bianca Giulia Imperiali, principessa di Cassano.
She lived (1908-2001).

2001- Gennara Imperiali
Mother of 2 sons and a daughter. (b. 1939-).


Until 1303 Sovereign Countess Beatrice
Succeeded father.


1422-24 Princess Regnant Rengarda de Brancaleoni

Dolceacqua, Isolabona, Apricale and Perinaldo

1500-15 Governatrice Dowager Lady Francesca Grimaldi
After the death of her husband, Luca Doria she became regent in
the fiefs, which had been inherited by their son. She was daughter of Lamberto Grimbaldo, Councllor of Antibes and Cagnes, Sovereign Lord of Monaco and Roccabruna and Patrician of Genova.

A fief in Trieste

1475-... Hereditary Castellana Ludovica Hofer
Her father, Matteo Hofer (or Hoffer)  had been given the fief by Emperor Maximilian in 1473 Ludovica was married to Raimondo IV della Torre. In 1653 the fief reverted to the state, but the family continued to rule the area and was handed down trough the female line to the families of Della Torre Valvassina, Thurn-Hofer di Vavassina, Hohenlohe, Thurn und Taxis and Torre e Tasso.

Durazzo e Gravina (in Napoli)

1336-45 Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes de Périgod of Durazzo e Gravina (in Napoli)  
After the death of her husband, Jean I d'Anjou-Sicile Duke of Durazzo (1294-1336) she became regent for their oldest son
Charles de Durazzo d'Anjou-Sicile, Prince d'Archaïe (1323-48).
Her husband had first been married to and divorced from Mathilde Mahaut d'Avesnes of Hollande and Hainaut Princess d'Archaïe and through her the title passed to Agnes' son. She was daughter of Count Hélie VII de Talleyrand de Périgord and Brunissende de Foix-Béarn.

1348-87 Sovereign Duchess Giovanna de Sicile-Duras of Durazzo   
Also known as Jeanne, she succeeded her father, Carlo di Durazzo, who was executed in 1348. She was married to Louis de Navarre, Comte de Beaumont and Robert IV d'Artois, comte d'Eu, who was poisoned in 1387. The duchy was named after Durazzo in Albania, which used to be ruled by Napoli. Her mother was Princess Maria of Napoli (1328-66), and she lived (1344-87).

Capua and Aversa

1091 Regent Dowager Princess Gaitelgrima
After the death of her husband, Jordan I, prince of Capua and count of Aversa, she was regent for her son Riccardo. She was expelled from Capua by the citizens, who elected one Count Lando as their prince, and she took her 3 sons with her to Aversa and then marrieod Count Alfredo di Sarno and retired to this area.


Elba and Piombino (Elba is an Islands in the Mediterranean, Piombino a Town in mainland Toscana)

1405 Regent Dowager Signora Paola Colonna
For Jacopo d’Appiani (1405-41)

1441-51 Signora Regnant Catarina Appiani

Until 1509 Signora Regnant Isabella Appiani

1509 Titular Princess  Polyxena Mendoza Orsini of Elba and Piombino  
The Principality was disputed among various pretenders or occupiers of the state.

1511 (†) Regent Dowager Princess Elena Salviati of Elba and Piombino  
Widow of Iacopo IV, who had regained control of the territory after it had been occupied by Cecare Borgia, she acted as regent for her son Iacopo V, but died shortly after taking office. The position of regent was taken over by another relative.

1545-48 Regent Dowager Lady Elena Salviati of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa  

After the death of her husband, Jacopo V Appiani (1480-1545) she was regent for their son, Jacopo VI (1529-85). The Lordship was under attack from Toacana and in 1548 she potested against the investiture of Cosimo I d'Medici as Duke of Piombino. She lived (1506-62)

1590 Regent Dowager Signora Isabella de Mendoza 
For Giacopo VIII who was deposed by the Spanish in 1603.

1603-11 Sovereign Lady Isabella Appiano d'Aragona of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1611-24 Sovereign Princess of Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano and the Islands of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli and Palmaionla
Succeeded her brother, Cosimo Jacopo VII, Lord and Prince of Piombino, Margrave of Populonia, who died 1603, she was deposed by the Spanish and in 1634 her grandson, Niccolò Luduvici, son of her daughter, Hereditary Princess Polissena (d. 1642), became Prince. She was daughter of Alessandro, Lord of Piombino and Isabel de Mendoza dei Conti di Binasco (1577-1661), who had been regent 1590. Isabella first married Giorgio de Mendoza, Count di Binasco, and secondly Paolo Giordano II Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, and (d.1628).

1699-1700 Regent Dowager Princess Anna-Maria Arduino e Furnari

After the death of her husband, Don Giovanni Battista I (1647-99), Principe regnante di Piombino e dell’Isola d’Elba etc, she was regent for her son, Niccolò, and after his death in 1699, she held the Principality in her own right until her own death in December 1700. She was daughter of Don Paolo Arduino e Patti, Principe di Palizzi, Marchese della Floresta, Barone di Placabaiana e Signore di Grassura. She (d. 1700).

1699-1700 Sovereign Princess Olimpia I Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, 8th Marchioness of Populonia, 8th Princess of Venosa, 13th Countess of Conza and Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola and Castelvetere
After the death of her nephew, Niccolo, she succeeded to the principality but remained in the Convent of ongregazione di Santa Francesca Romana under the name of Sister Anna, and her sister-in-law, Anna-Maria Arduino e Furnari, remained regent until her sister, Ippolita took over as Soverign Princess. Olimpia lived (1656-1700)

1700-33 Sovereign Princess Ippolita I Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Princess of Venosa, Countess of Conza and Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola and Castelvetere
Ippolita succeeded sister Olimpia as Principessa sovrana, and married to Gregorio II Boncompagni, Duke of Sora and Acre, Marquess of Vignola etc., who was co-prince until his death in 1707. She was daughter of Niccolò I and his third wife Costanza Pamphili, and was succeeded by the oldest of her six daughters, Maria Eleonora Boncompagni Ludovisi, who reigned 1733-45. Ippolita lived (1663-1724).

1733-45 Princess Regnant Maria Eleonora Boncompagni Ludovisi
Also  Marquesa of Populonia, Princess of Venosa and  Countess of Conza etc. Succeeded mother

1805-14 Princess Regnant Anne-Marie-Elisa Bacioccni Bonaparte of Elba e Piobino
The eldest of Napoleon's sisters. Elisa (as she was usually known) married Felix Baciocchi, a former officer of the Royal Corsican regiment, on 1 May 1797. On 18 March 1805, Napoleon made over the principality of Piombino to his sister, to which that of Lucca was added three months afterwards. She proved to be extremely serious in her duties as sovereign, taking an interest not only in improving the roadways and opening a school and an academy, but also showing a knowledge of military affairs. On 3 March 1809, she was made Grand Duchess of Tuscany. After the fall of Napoleon, she lived in various places, including Moravia, Trieste, and Bologna, where she was known by the name of the Countess Compignano. She lived (1777-18...)


100s Queen Larthia Seianti of the City State of Caere in Etruria
Her slendid sarcophauge has lead historians to speculate that she might have been Queen of the City State of Chiuisi or Caere. Even if Caere did not have kings and queens at this time (as did Rome, or as Caere certainly did in the 5th century), it is clear that society had become sharply differentiated, not only in regard to wealth but also in division of labor. Many scholars hypothesize the existence of a powerful aristocratic class, and craftsmen, merchants, and seamen would have formed a middle class; it was probably at this time that the Etruscans began to maintain the elegant slaves for which they were famous.



1506 Regent Duchess Lucrezia Borgia
As regent in the absence of her husband, Alfonso I d'Este,
she issued an edict in favour of the Jews. 1499-1502 she had been Governor of Spoleto and Foligno and 1501-02 her father, Pope Alexander VI put her in charge of the Administration of the Vatican and the Catholic Church. She lived (1480-1519).

Firenze (Florence)

1469-82 Politically Influential Lucrezia Tornabuoni
During the reign of her son, Lorenzo de' Medici, she was very involved in the political life of the Republic and exercised considerable influence. She also also wrote sonnets, She was a daughter of Francesco Tornabuoni and Selvaggia Alessandrini. and was married to Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, son of Cosimo de' Medici, a wealthy banker from Florence, who helped the family return from their exile from the City State. She lived (1425-82).

1469-87 Politically Influential Clarice Orsini
Functioned as representative - as a quasi-diplomat - of her husband, Lorenzo de' Medici, during his tenure as de-facto ruler of the Florentine Republic.  She was mother of Pope Leo X and daughter of Giacomo Orsini, Lord of Monterotondo and Bracciano, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. She lived (circa 1453-87).

1515-19 De Facto Governor Alfonsina Orsini of The Republic of Firenze  
As mother of the de facto ruler of Florence, Lorenzo II de' Medici, she was able to govern during his absence. She was involved in the strategic planning of Florence's war with the French and the plans for making a treaty as well as her oversight of Pope Leo's entry into Florence in November 1515. Her governorship was indicative of the increasingly signora nature of the Medici regime and that she had far more power, influence and authority than the previous generation of Medici women. She was the daughter of Roberto Orsini, Conte Tagliacozzo and Catherine San Severino and married to Piero "il Unfortunato" de' Medici, who lived 1503. Apart from Lorenzo, she was mother of  Clarissa de' Medici, and lived (1472-1520).

Forli and Imola

1477-1501 Countess Caterina Sforza
She was daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, though she became the legitimized daughter of Lucrezia Landiani. At the age 15 she gave birth to her daughter Bianca, who  was followed by six more children in nine years. Her husband, Girolamo Riaria was murdered in 1488 by the Orsi family and she was taken captive with children but escaped. Caterina sought and received help from Milan and Bologna. From here on, Caterina became noted as a brutal tyrant. Initially she was regent for her young son Ottaviano. Married her second husband, Giacomo Peo, around 1490 and had a son with him. Giacomo was murdered 1495. Her third husband was Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de Medici died after one year of marriage - of natural causes aged 29. Caterina continued to rule her small lands until they were attacked by Cesare Borgia in 1499 - son of Pope Alexander VI. Catharina was then imprisoned in Belvedere Palace at the Vatican for four months. After a failed escape attempt, Caterina was imprisoned in Castel Sant' Angelo for one year. She was released  after having given up her lordship, died eight years later in Firenze. She lived (1463-1509)

It was created as a Grand fief of the French Empire, attached to a territorial basis but not reigning

1813-29 Duchess de Duroc
The widow of General Duroc was appointed Duroc.



1008 and 1012-29 Regent Dowager Senatrix and Duchess Emilia
As she was referred to as Senatrix at the time of her marriage, she was probably, member of the powerful Roman Crescenzi or Tusculani families. After the death of her husband, Giovanni III (984–1008) she was regent for her son Giovanni IV and after his death for grandson Giovanni V (1012–1032). Initially she was opposed by her husband's nephew, Leo I, but her supporters expelled him. But then she had to deal with the opposition of her own son, Leo II, who expected to be accorded the regency. The two disputed the regency and co-undersigned charters until January 1025, when Leo last appears in the Codex Caietanus. Emilia was the sole regent in a February charter. She supported the Pope and the Lombards against the Byzantine Empire.  In 1027, when Duke Sergius IV was forced to flee Napoli, she gave him refuge and he conceded to the Gaetans certain rights in travelling in Neapolitan land. An accord was signed between the rulers in February 1029. It is not known when her regency ended. She (d. 1036)

1062-63 Regent Dowager Senatrix and Duchess Maria
 According to Amatus of Montecassino, her father, Pandulf IV of Capua, supported her husband, Count Atenulf of Aquino in taking the duchy of Gaeta from Asclettin, Count of Aversa, on the death of Ranulf Drengot in 1045. After his death, she ruled as regent for her son Atenulf II after her husband's death. After a few monts pact was confirmed between her and the counts of Traietto, Maranola, and Suio that excluded any of them from forming any pact with the Normans and the counts swore to protect the territory of the Gaetan duchy. The league was successful in preventing Riccardo of Capua from extending his conquests during the year, but he skillfully negotiated to prevent a renewal of the pact and on 28 June 1063, he was in possession of Gaeta. She then made an alliance with the counts of Traietto and Aquino, her sons Lando and Atenulf, and with Gugliermo de Montreuil, who repudiated his wife in order to marry her in late 1064. But in February 1065, the revolted were put down by Riccardo of Capua and she and her husband were expelled from the Duchy. She was (born circa 1020).

Gallura in Sardinia

1202/03-18 Judicissa Elena de Lacon of Gallura
When her father, Barisone II, died left her and the giudicato under the protection of Pope Innocent III, who asked Biagio, Archbishop of Torres to assure a smooth succession in Gallura, which meant arranging a marriage for the young woman. In July 1204, the Pope wrote to her commending her for abiding by papal advice and admonishing her mother, Riccus, Archbishop of Cagliari, and the people of Gallura to follow the decision of Biagio. The bishop of Cività, the Gallurese capital, was sent to Rome to receive papal instruction concerning the marriage prospects. Gugliermo of Cagliari had already intervened to remove a suitor, and did so again in 1206. Later that year she was informed that she would be marrying Trasimondo, a cousin of the Pope, but she refused and instead married a Pisan named Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio. After her death, her husband was engaged to Benedetta of Cagliari. Her son Ubaldo II Visconti later succeeded, who was married to Judicissa Adelaisa of Logudoro. (d. circa 1218).

1236-59 Judicissa Adelaisa of Logudoro
1237-59 Judicissa of Gallura
By a pact signed between her father, Marianus II, who had interests in Gallura, and the Gallurese judge, Lamberto Visconti in November 1218, she first married the Lamberto's son, Ubaldo II in 1219. Pope Honorius III, enemy of the Pisans, immediately sent his chaplain Bartolomeo to annul the marriage, but he failed. Ubaldo inherited the Giudicato of Gallura in 1225. And when her brother, Barisone III, died without heirs, the Logudorese magnates unanimously acclaimed her as ruler with her husband as co-ruler. In 1237, Pope Gregory IX sent his chaplain Alexander to Torres to receive her recognition of papal suzerainty over Logudoro, as well as the lands she inherited from her grandfather, Gugliermo of Cagliari, in Pisa, Massa, and Corsica, and she made the oath of vassalage and Ubaldo affirmed it. He died later that year leaving Gallura to his cousin John Visconti. She remarried quickly to Guelfo dei Porcari, who died soon after. At that time, the Doria family of Genoa, Pisa's main rival, convinced the Emperor Friederich II to marry his bastard son Enzo to her and create a Kingdom of Sardinia. Enzo arrived from Cremona in October the same year as Ubaldo's death and the two were married and titled King and Queen of Sardinia. He left for Italy in july 1239 and never returned, being taken prisoner by the Este-family, and was never released, and in 1245 or 1246 the marriage was annulled. Her mother was Agnes of Massa, she apparently had to children who died as infants and her possessions was divided amongst the Doria, Malaspina, and Spinola families. The neighbourging Giudicato of Arborea succeeded in taking some land. She lived (1207-59).

1298-1339 Titular Judicissa and Countess Giovanna Visconti of Gallura (and Cagliari) (Italy)
Her father, Ugolino Visconti, had already been deprived of Gallura by the Republic of Pisa at the time of her succession as an infant, so it was purely nominal. She claimed her rights in Sardinia to no avail and eventually sold them to her relatives, the Visconti of Milan, who later sold them to the Crown of Aragon. On 13 November 1309, she married Rizzardo da Camino, Count of Ceneda and Lord of Treviso. In 1328, she was granted a pension by the Este family of her mother, Beatrice d'Este. (d. 1339).


1813-14 Titular Duchess Jósephine de Beauharnais
Daughter of Emperor Napoleon I's stepson, Eugene de Beauharnais, Prince of France, Viceroy of Italy etc. and Josephine of Bavaria, Fürstin of Leuchtenberg, she was created Princess di Bologna in 1807.  She married King Oscar I of Sweden and became known as Queen Josefina. She lived (1806-51)


1522-39 Sovereign Countess Ludovica Torello
After the death of her second husband, she became a cleric. The County of Guastalla, which she had inherited from her father, claimed by another branch of the family, and the affair was carried before Pope Clement VIII and Emperor Charles V. She settled the matter by disposing of her estates to Fernando Gonzaga, thereby also increasing her resources for the religious foundations she had in mind. In 1536 she entered the Angelicals, a congregation which she had founded, taking the name of Paola Maria. Later she established or assisted in the establishment of several other religious houses in various parts of Italy. When Paul III imposed the cloister on the Angelicals, she instituted another community, also at Milano. Like the Angelicals, they were under the direction of the Barnabites. The members, known as Daughters of Mary, dedicated themselves to the care of orphans of noble family, eighteen being provided for in the endowment. She lived (1499-1569).

1678-92 Titular Sovereign Duchess Isabella I Gonzaga 
When she married Ferdinando Carlo IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova in 1670, they were promised the succession to the Duchy after her father, Ferrante III
, but in 1692, Emperor Leopold declared this illegitimate and granted the feud to her cousin, Vincenzo I Gonzaga, who married her younger sister Maria-Vittoria (1659-1707) in 1679. Anna Isabella had no children, and lived (1655-1703).

806 Sovereign Princess and Duchess (March-August) Pauline Bonaparte
Also Princess of Lucca. After her resignation as Princess she retained the title of Duchess. Married to Camille Boerghese. She lived (1780-1825)

1814-47 Duchess Maria-Luigia de Austria
Also Duchess of Lucca 1814-17. She was ex-Empress of France, the former wife of Emperor Napoleon I. 


1503 –circa 21 Ruler Princess Costanza d'Avalos
Also Duchess of Francavilla and Signora di Pomanico, she was daughter of Inìgo, Lord of the Island of Ischia, and Antonella d'Aquino. In 1483 her husband, the governor of the island, Prince Federich del Balzo of Taranto, died. She had her brother, Inìgo d'Avalos named governor and ruled jointly with him. She After her brother's death in 1503, she defended the island against the French, restoring it to the Aragonian owerlordship. She continued to rule together with her nephew, Francesco Ferrante, who married the famous poet Vittoria Colonna, in 1509 and later also together with Alfonso d'Avalos and Costanza junior, and during her reign the Island became a famous cultural center. She was (b. 1460).


Until 931 Co-Regent Margravine Ermengard di Lucca

She was daughter of Adalbert II of Tuszia and Berta, illegitimate daughter of king Lothar II. As co-regent she secured the Italian throne for her brother, Hugo d’Arle, against the claims of Raoul II de Haute-Bourgogne. 



1194-1216 Sovereign Countess Maria Albina d'Altavilla of Lecce  
Or Aberia or Elvira, was daughter of King Tancredi of Sicily and Sibilla de Medina d'Acerra, and she was held prisoner in Germany with her mother and sister, but they managed to escape. 1198 her mother married her to Gauthier III de Brienne, who was invested with her father's fief as Prince di Taranto. After his death in 1205 she ruled in the name of their newborn son, Gauthier IV (1205-51 . She later married Giacomo, Seigneur of Sanseverino and after his death Tegrino di Modigliana, Pfalzgraf von Tuszien. Also mother of a daughter, she lived (circa 1185-1216).

1384-1414 Sovereign Countess Maria d'Enghien of Lecce  
1434 Countess of
1406-07 Sovereign Princess of Taranto

She succeded her brother, Pietro. A year later she was married for political reasons to Raimondello Orsini del Balzo, Count of Soleto. It was a serene period, during which, their government was dedicated to commissioning architectural works and establishing, in Lecce, “Concistorium principis”, a civil court. However the peace did not last long, in fact in 1405 king Ladislao, worried about the power Raimondello held, decided to invade. Raimondello was killed in 1406, and this enabled the Princess to begin the most romantic chapter in her life. King Ladislao tried to gain power over the city, however he had underestimated the strength of Maria and his quest was unsuccessful. He began to court her and tried to attain power in this way. The next year they were married, but according to some chronicles their union was not at all happy and she lived with the constant knowledge of his indifference to her. Ladislao died in 1414 and his cruel sister , Giovanna II, tried to imprison the new queen but she was liberated by Giacomo Della Marca. After this she returned to Lecce and passed over power to her son, Giovanni Antonio Orsini del Balzo, and retired from public. She lived (1367-1446).

Logudoro in Sardinia

1236-59 Judicissa Adelaisa of Logudoro
1237-59 Judicissa of Gallura
By a pact signed between her father, Marianus II, who had interests in Gallura, and the Gallurese judge, Lamberto Visconti in November 1218, she first married the Lamberto's son, Ubaldo II in 1219. Pope Honorius III, enemy of the Pisans, immediately sent his chaplain Bartolomeo to annul the marriage, but he failed. Ubaldo inherited the Giudicato of Gallura in 1225. And when her brother, Barisone III, died without heirs, the Logudorese magnates unanimously acclaimed her as ruler with her husband as co-ruler. In 1237, Pope Gregory IX sent his chaplain Alexander to Torres to receive her recognition of papal suzerainty over Logudoro, as well as the lands she inherited from her grandfather, Gugliermo of Cagliari, in Pisa, Massa, and Corsica, and she made the oath of vassalage and Ubaldo affirmed it. He died later that year leaving Gallura to his cousin John Visconti. She remarried quickly to Guelfo dei Porcari, who died soon after. At that time, the Doria family of Genoa, Pisa's main rival, convinced the Emperor Friederich II to marry his bastard son Enzo to her and create a Kingdom of Sardinia. Enzo arrived from Cremona in October the same year as Ubaldo's death and the two were married and titled King and Queen of Sardinia. He left for Italy in july 1239 and never returned, being taken prisoner by the Este-family, and was never released, and in 1245 or 1246 the marriage was annulled.
Her mother was Agnes of Massa, she apparently had to children who died as infants and her possessions was divided amongst the Doria, Malaspina, and Spinola families. The neighbourging Giudicato of Arborea succeeded in taking some land. She lived (1207-59).

Lucca and Tuscia (Toscana)

915 Regent Dowager Margravine Bertha of Lothringa
For Guido I

1054-76 Margravine Regnant Beatrice

1076-1081/1115 Margravine Regnant Mathilda
Succeeded mother

1806 Princess Pauline Bonaparte (March-May)
Also Princess-Duchess of Gaustalla. 

1814-47 Duchess Maria-Luigia de Austria
Also Duchess of Lucca 1814-17. She was ex-Empress of France, the former wife of Emperor Napoleon I. 


1409-44 Politically Influential Marchesa Paola Malatesta
She took part in the government during the reign of her husband Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, who was Lord of Mantova and Captain of Popolo (1407-33) before being granted the title of Margrave by the Emperor in 1433. She was daughter of the Venetian noble, Carlo I Signore di Rimini and his wife Elisabetta Gonzaga dei Signori di Mantova. She lived (1393-1449).

1478-before 1481 Regent Dowager Marchesa Barbara von Hohenzollern
articipated in the management of government during the reign of her husband, Ludovico II Gonzaga 1444-78, and personally edited the education of children. After the death of her husband, she was regent for son, Federico (1441-84). She was the first daughter of Johan the Alchemist, Elector of Brandenburg and Barbara of Saxe-Wittenbere lived (1423-81).

1508-10 and 1516-25 Regent Margravine Isabella d'Este  
Before 1508 she reigned when her husband, Federico I Gonzaga, was away from the state, she was regent during his captivity, afterwards during his illness and finally for son, Federico II Gonzaga, who was away from the state. She was very well educated. She was was able to speak Greek and Latin as well as play the lute, sing, dance and debate. As regent she founded a school for young women where they had to observe a strict code of morals. She was a patron of the Arts and she also set artistic fashions and standards. Isabella collected many paintings and statues. She also wrote over two thousand letters and in these she commented on everything from politics to war. That was the closest that any woman at that time ever got to writing history.

1612 Duchess Maria di Gonzaga Nevers

Succeeded father. She lived (1609-60)

Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita di Savoia of Mantua and Monferrato
Governor of Lisboa 1612-29 and 1633-40  Vice-reine of Portugal

1664-69 Regent Isabella Clara von Habsburg
Also Regent in Monferrato for Fernando Carlo III. She lived (1629-85)

1740-80 Princess Maria-Theresia von Habsburg
Empress of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, Queen of Bohemia etc. 

Sovereign Principality of Masserano and Sovereign Marchionate of Crevacuore (etc)

1667-85 Joint Ruler Princess Francesca Maria Cristina di Simiana of Masserano and Crevacuore (Italy)
She was joint ruler with her second husband, Sovereign Prince Francesco Ludovico Ferrero Fieschi of Masserano, Sovereign Marchese of Crevacuore, Principe del Sacro Romano Impero sulla Contea di Lavagna, Conte Palatino del Sacro Romano Impero, etc, etc. (1638-1685). The state involved several small territories in northwestern Italy near the Pennine Alps. She was first married to Francesco Valperga Conte di Masino. Her second son, Carlo Besso (1662-1720) succeeded his father
. Her niece, Maria Irene Delfina di Simiana succeeded her brother as Princess di Montafia etc. in 1706. Francesca lived (1640-1716)

Massa e Carrara
Massa was a Duchy and Carrara a Principality

1214-31 Margavine Regnant Benedetta 
Also Judge of Aborea e Cagliari in Sardegna. She succeeded father. (d. 1231)

1233-39 17th Judicissa and Sovereign Princess Agnese of Cagliari (in Sardinia) and Margravine Regnant of Massa e Carrara  
She was daughter of Constantino II (1129-41-63) and succeeded relative, Urbaldo (1231-33) and was succeeded by Guiglermo II of Arborea, who reigned until 1253.

1519-56 Sovereign Margravine Riccairda Malaspina of Massa e Carrara, Lady of Massa dei Malpasina  
Succeeded father Alberico II Malapasina. Her second husband was Lorenzo Cybo After the death of her sister, Eleonora, she got papal dispensation to marry her close relative, Count Scipione Fieschi. After his death in 1520 she married Lorenzo Cybo - the nephew of Pope Leon X. 1525 Emperor Karl V formally invested her with the fief of Massa e Carrara and the Malaspinan territories in 1529. She preferred to reside in Rome and Firenze, and in her abcence Cardinale Innocenzo Cybo was in charge of the government. Succeeded by son Giulio Cybo-Malaspina, and lived (1497-1556).

1731-90 Sovereign Duchess Maria-Theresa Cybo-Malaspina of Massa e Carrara, Sovereign Princess of Carrara, 6th Duchess of Ajello, Baroness di Paduli, Sovereign Lady of Moneta and Avenza and Lady of Lago, Laghitello, Serra and Terrati, (Italy)
Succeeded father, Alderamo Cybo Malaspina (1690-1731). She first married Eugene de Savoia, Count of Soissons and Duke of Troppau, by proxy but never in person because he died in 1734. Four years later she married Ercole III Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena and Reggio (1727-1803). 1744 she received her imperial investiture and took over command of her state and reigned with energy and competence. She was known as a nice and sensible person, who had been well educated by her mother, with the emphasis on clemency, moderation and patience. She reformed the laws, built a hospital and promoted art, culture and architecture, in 1787 she transferred the fief of Ajello to her brother-in-law, the Prince of without any feudal prerogatives, and was succeeded by her only daughter, Maria Beatrice d'Este. The surname is also spelled Cibo-Malaspina. She lived (1725- 90).

1731-41 Regent Dowager Duchess Ricciarda Gonzaga di Novellarda
For daughter. She lived (1698-1768)

11790-97 and 1814-29 Sovereign Duchess Maria Beatrice III Ricciarda d'Este of Massa, Sovereign Princess of Carrara and di Luniana
1792-1829 7th Duchess di Ajello, Baroness di Paduli and Lady of Lago, Laghitello, Serra and Terrati
1803-29 Titular Duchess of Modena
She succeeded her mother, Maria-Teresa Cybò-Malpasina di Massa-Carrara and was installed with the feudal titles two years after. The territory was occupied. She was married to a Archduke of Austria who became Titlar Duke of Modena, after the death of her father, Ercole III Rinaldo of Modena in 1803. Maria Beatrice Ricciarda lived (1750-1829).


1402-04 Regent Dowager Duchess Catarina
For Giovanni Maria Visconti

1441 Hereditary Duchess Bianca Maria Visconti
She lived (1525-68)

1476-81 Regent Dowager Duchess Buona di Savoia
For Gian Galazzo II (1476-94)

1492-97 Politically Influential Duchess Beatrice d'Este of Bari and Milano (Italy)
Visited Vennetia in 1492 as ambassador for her husband, Lodovico de' Medici in his political schemes, which consisted chiefly in a desire to be recognized as duke of Milan and when Gian Galeazzo Sforza died the same year, his usurpation of the Duchy of Milano was legalized, and after the Battle of Fornovo in 1495, they both took part in the peace congress of Vercelli between Charles VIII of France and the Italian princes, at which she showed great political ability. But her brilliant career was cut short by death through childbirth. She surround herself with learned men, poets and artists, such as Niccolo da Correggio, Bernardo Castiglione, Bramante, Leonardo da Vinci and many others. The daughter of Ercole I d’Este and Eleonora d'Aragona, she lived (1475-97).

1537-43 Politically Influential Maria Salviati of Firenze and Toscana
Was instrumental in ensuring that her son, Cosimo I de' Medici was chosen to succeed her cousin, Alessandro de Medici, who had been assassinated, by predicating her right to be involved in deliberations to choose a new ruler on her authority as the young’s man mother- Her husband, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, had died in 1526. She was the daughter of Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici and Jacopo Salviati, and lived (1499-1543).

1539-62 Temporary Regent Duchess Eleonora Alvarez de Toledo of Firenze and Toscana
Her husband, Cosimo I de' Medici, left her in charge of the government during his frequent absences from the Duchies. She encouraged the arts, encouraged the Jesuit order to settle in Florence and also founded many new churches in the city. She was interested in agriculture and business, helping to expand and increase not only the profitability of the vast Medici estates, but also through her charitable interests the lot of the peasantry. She was daughter of the Viceroy of Naples, Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the, Lieutenant-Governor of Carlos V, and Maria Osorio-Pimentel, 2, Marquessa de Villafranca, and lived (1522-62).

1740-80 Princess  Regnant Maria-Theresia von Habsburg
Empress of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, Queen of Bohemia etc. 

Modena e Reggio

1473-93 Politically Influential Duchess Eleonora of Aragon of Modena and Ferrara
Held firmly on to the reins of government during the absences of her husband Ercole I d'Este, showing herself to be decisive and authoritative, but also wise and level-headed. She had first been married to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Bari and was daughter of Ferdinando I of Napoli and Isabella of Tarento and lived (1450-93).

1662-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Laura Martinozzi of Modena e Reggio   
After the death of her husband, Alfonso IV d'Este, she acted as regent for their son two year old son Francesco II. Her daughter Maria Beatrice d'Este became Queen of England. Laura was the nice of Cardinal Mazarin, regent of France, and lived (1639-87).

1737 Regent Princess Benedetta Maria Ernestina Este of Modena and Reggio (Italy)

After the death of her father, Rinaldo III, she acted as regent together with sister for their brother Francesco III, who was a General in the Imperial Army and whose wife, Princess Charlotte Aglaë d'Orléans lived in Paris. Benedetta was unmarried and lived (1697-1777)

1737 Regent Princess Anna Amalia Giuseppina Este of Modena and Reggio (Italy)
She was married to the Marchese de Villeneuf, a French adventurer, and lived (1699-1778)

1790-97 and 1814-29 Sovereign Duchess Maria Beatrice III Ricciarda d'Este of Massa, Sovereign Princess of Carrara and di Luniana
1792-1829 7th Duchess di Ajello, Baroness di Paduli and Lady of Lago, Laghitello, Serra and Terrati
1803-29 Titular Duchess of Modena
She succeeded her mother, Maria-Teresa Cybò-Malpasina di Massa-Carrara and was installed with the feudal titles two years after. The territory was occupied. She was married to a Archduke of Austria who became Titlar Duke of Modena, after the death of her father, Ercole III Rinaldo of Modena in 1803. Maria Beatrice Ricciarda lived (1750-1829).


1303-17 De facto Reigning Empress Violante Aleramo of Thessalonica (Greece)
1305-06 Sovereign Margravine of Monferrato  
She married Emperor Andronikos II Palailogos, later Emperor of Constantinople, as his second wife in 1284 and became known as Yolanda, and was given Thessalonica as her dowry. She was in disupte with her husband over the future of their sons, as his sons by the first marriage were named as heirs. She wanted to have the Empire carved out in seperate principalities for each of the thre sons. They grew further apart when her husband married their five year old daughter to King Simonis Milutin of Serbia who were in his 50s and forced their oldest son to marry the daughter of his closest advisor even though she was of low nobility. In 1303 she packed her backs and took up residence in Thessalonica, which considered her own property. 1309 an attempt of reconciliation failed and she died in her territory in 1317. 1305 she had inherited Monferrato from her brother and the folowing year she passed the title to her second son, Theodore, who spend the rest of his life in Italy. She was mother of seven chldren.

1305-06 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita de Savoia of Monferrato  
She had been very influential during the reign of her husband, Giovanni I, Lord of Ivrea and Astri (1277-95-1305) and acted as regent until her sister-in-law, Empress Yolanda of Constantinople, transferred the Margravate to her fourth son, Theodoros Palaiologos. Margherita (d. 1339).

(and possibly 1533-36) Regent Dowager Margravine Anne d'Alençon
After the death of her husband, Guglielmo IX Secondo Lazzaro (1494-1818), she was regent for son, Bonifacio IV (1512-18-30). He was succeeded by uncle and then by
his sister Margherita in 1533. Anne was also Dame de La Guerche and lived (1492-1562).

1533-60 Hereditary Margravine Maria Paleologa
The daughter of Gugliermo IX and Princess Anne de Alençon, she succeeded her uncle,
the former Bishop Giangiorgio Sebastiano, who had succeeded her brother three years earlier, but had no issue of his own. 1517 she married Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, but the marriage was never consumated and in 1530 they divorced and entered the Convent of Casale. The following year her sister Margherita married Federico and took over the claims vor the Margravate. Maria lived (1508-60).

1533-66 Margravine Margherita Paleologa
1540-50 Regent of Mantova
1540-60 Sovereign Countess of Carmagnola (Italy) 
After her sister Maria had divorced Federico II di Mantova and entered a convent, Margherita took over her claims to the Margravate and married Federico, who was given the title of Margrave of Mantova in 1536. After his death she became regent for son Gugliermo jointly with brother-in-law, Cardinal Ercole. She lived (1510-66).

1612 Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita di Savoia of Mantua and Monferrato  
1612-29 Governor of Lisboa (Portugal)
1633-40 Vice-reine of Portugal
After the death of her husband, Francesco IV Gonzaga, she became regent for daughter Maria in Mantova until her brother-in-law took over as Duke after having renounced his position of Cardinal. Her only son died a few months before Francesco. She was later appointed Governor of Lisbon and Vice-Queen of Portugal by her cousin King Felipe IV of Spain and Portugal (1605-21-65). In 1640 the Spanish were driven out of Portugal by the Duke of Bragança, King João IV and she was taken prisoner. She was daughter of Duke Carlo Emanuele I di Savoia, Prince of Piemonte, Count di Aosta, Moriana, Asti e Nizza, titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, and Marchese di Saluzzo and Infanta Catalina Michaella of Spain, whose sister was Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg, Governor of the Southern Netherlands. Margarita lived (1589-1655).

1612 Sovereign Duchess Maria Gonzaga of Mantua and Monferrato  
Regent Duchess of Monferrato
Succeeded her father, Duke Francesco IV Gonzaga, who only reigned 10 months, but she was soon replaced by uncle, Ferdinando I, who had renounced his position of Cardinal. He died in 1615 and was succeeded by his brother, Vinzenco II, also a former Cardinal. She was engaged to Carlo Emanuele I of Savoia, but married Carlo Gonzaga Nevers, Duke de Nevers et Rethel, de Mayenne et d'Aiguillon, Marquis de Villars, Comte du Maine, de Tende et de Sommerive in 1627 (d. 1631), and their son, Caro II (1629-65), inherited Mantua in 1637 from her father-in-law, Carlo I Gonzaga, who had inherited the Duchy in 1627 from Vinzenco II.
In 1651 she left the duchy og Monferrato to her son. Also mother of one daughter, Eleonore, she lived (1609-60).

1664-69 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella Clara von Habsburg of Mantova and Monferrato   
Widow of Carlo III Gonzaga and regent for Carlo IV. She lived (1629-85).

1691-1705 Regent Anna Isabella 

Monte Porzio

1430... Sovereign Lady Ludovica of Monte Porzio, Consignora, Bernardovecchio, Busichio, Ghirardo, Monleone, Calbana, Calbanella, Ginestreto e Secchiano, Castiglione
1438... Lady of San Mauro
Daughter of Gaspare and Novella dei Signori di Roello and married to Niccolò da Montefeltro, natural son of Count Conte Antonio da Montefeltro


Napoli (Napels)

1343-81 Queen Regnant Giovanna I
1374-76 Princess of Achaia (Morea) in Greece

Also Countess of Province, Forcalquier and Piermont and titular Queen of Jerusalem. She succeeded grandfather. Her first husband, Andreas of Hungary was Duke of Calabria. He was murdered. The second husband, her cousin, Louis de Tarent was king of Napoli until his death 1362, the third husband, Giacomo de Argonia was Duke of Calabria till his death 1364 and so was the last husband, Otto von Braunschweig, who died 1373. Giovanna was deposed and died 1382

1343-66 Hereditary Princess Maria d'Angiò of Napoli, Countess of Alba  
Posthumously born daughter of Duke Carlo de Calabria and Maria de Valois, she was designated as heir to her sister, Giovanna I. First married to C
harles d'Anjou, Prince of Durazzo, who was executed, she murdered her second husband, Robert de Baux, Count d'Avellino in 1354 and the following year she married her last husband, Philippe II. d'Anjou, Prince de Taranto. Mother of ten children, of whom all her children of the third marriage died young and she died giving birth to the younges. She lived (1328-66).

1381-86 Politically Influential Queen Margherita
d'Angiò-Durazzo of Napoli  
1386-1400 Regent Dowager Queen
She was very influential during her husband and nephew Carlo III Durazzo's reign. He succeeded her father, Andreas of Hungary, as king and was also king of Hungary 1386. He was killed same year and she became regent for her son Ladislao di Durazzo (1386-1414) who was succeeded by his daughter, Giovanna II. Margherita's was daughter of Duke Carlo di Durazzo and Princess Maria of Napoli (1328-66), and her sister Giovanna, was Duchess of Durazzo
from 1348. She lived (1347-1412).

1414-35 Queen Regnant Giovanna II
She succeeded her brother Lancelot. Her second husband, James of Bourbon, was imprisoned in 1416 after attempting to seize power. She adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir in 1421. After he tried to take over Naples in 1423 she transferred the adoption to Louis III who she had expelled in 1420 for trying to take over Naples. Louis died in 1434 and again she transferred the adoption to his brother Rene. At her death Alfonso seized power and Reneís claim was never secured. She was the last Angevin to reign in Naples.

1435-38 Regent in-absentia Queen Isabella de Lorraine
For Renato/Rene de Lorraine, Napoli and Province
. 1431, she succeeded her father Karl I as Duchess of Lorraine. Her husband, René d'Anjou (d. 1480), Duke of Anjou from 1430 was Duke by the right of his wife of Bar from 1434, and when Queen Giovanna of Napoli died in 1435, she left him her throne. Isabella led the government during his warfare with Giovanna's privious adopted heir King Alfonso of Aragón and Sicily and in 1442 he defeated René, took Naples, and the following year he was recognized as King by the Pope Eugene IV. Among Isabella's six children was Queen Margaret d'Anjou of England. Isabel lived (1410-1453).

1478-1501 Politically Influential Queen Giovanna III de Aragona of Napoli
1494-96 Lieutenant General
1501 Regent of Aragon
1505 Regent of Valencia
1505-08 Regent of Napoli
Until 1517 Lady of the Fief of the Sorrento Peninsula
Closest advisor of her husband, Ferrante I, who succeeded his father Alfonso I of Sicily in 1558. After his death in 1494, she encouraged her step-son King Alfonso II (1448-95) not to abdicate after the French attacked the kingdom, and when he left the country, he appointed her Lieutenant General. He was succeeded by his son, Ferrante II (1469-96), who married his aunt - her daughter, Giovanna IV (1478-1518) who was styled as joint monarch, whom she attemted to have placed on the throne in 1496. Instead her younger step-son Federico II came on the throne until he was deposed by King Louis XII of France in 1504. She went to Spain and was Regent in Aragon and Valencia until she returned when her brother, Ferdinand the Catholic of Aragon (married to Isabel I the Catholic of Catille) conquered Napoli, and she became regent until she was removed from office, and both she and her daughter, Giovanna IV dissapeared from public life. Born as Juana de Aragón she was daughter of King Juan II of Aragon, Navarra, Valencia, Cerdeña and Sicilia and his second wife doña Juana Enríquez Señora de Casarrubios del Monte y Arroyojolinos, and lived (1454-1517).

1495-96 Co-ruler Queen Consort Giovanna IV
She was married to her nephew, King Ferdinand II

Napoli-Sicilia/Duo Sicilia (Naples-Sicily/Two Sicilies)

1746-60 (†) Councillor of State Queen Maria-Amalia von Sachsen-Poland of The Two Sicilies  
She became a member of the Council of State after the birth of her first son, after 9 years of marriage. Her older son Carlos became son of Spain, the younger, Fernando, King of Napoli. She lived (1724-60).

1768-1806 De-facto ruler, Queen Consort Maria Caroline von Habsburg-Lorraine of The Two Sicilies  
1775-1806 Councillor of State
She was daughter of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria and very influential during the reign of her husband, Ferdinando di Borbone who became King of Napoli when his father succeeded as king of Spain. When she gave birth to a male heir in 1775, she became a member of the Council of state. Under Maria's  influence Ferdinando joined her brother in opposing the French Revolution, which resulted in the invasion of Naples. Ferdinando escaped to Sicily leaving his kingdom to become a Republic controlled by France. By June 1799 he had gathered his forces and returned to crush the opposition and regain his throne. In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother,  Joseph, as King. This forced Ferdinando to abdicate and leave once more for Sicily. He returned to Naples again after Napoleon's downfall. In 1816 Naples and Sicily were united when the kingdom of the Two Sicilies was formed. By 1820, dissatisfaction with the monarchy resulted in an uprising which  Ferdinando quelled by reluctantly agreeing to a new constitution. However, in 1821 he called on Austrian forces to overthrow the reactionary government. She lived (1752-..).

1808-15 Regent Queen Caroline Bonaparte
She was the actual leader of the government during her husband' Joachim Murat's participation in the fighting in France. They were Duke and Duchess of Berg 1806-08. She lived (1782-1839)

1859-61 Politically Influential Queen Maria Sofia in Bayern of the Two Sicilies  
She was married to King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies, who opposed the goal of Italian political unification as it was advocated by exponents in Turino. Sicily was attacked in 1860, but Francesco, who commanded Italy's strongest army, failed to respond, and the Savoyard troops eventually invaded the Kingdom's mainland territories, beginning with Calabria. Under the command of loyalist officers, the fortress of Messina held out for months, but Francesco, wishing to avoid a civilian slaughter like that which had taken place at Palermo, abandoned Naples in favour of the coastal stronghold at Gaeta to the north. Maria Sophia followed him, and during the siege in early 1861 earned the nickname "Heroine of Gaeta." A falsified referendum (showing a victory of 99 percent) confirmed Vittorio Emanuele II as King of Italy. The couple lived for a time in Rome, at Palazzo Farnese, a family home (now the French Embassy). There, in 1869, Maria Sophia gave birth to a daughter, Maria Cristina, who died after three months. Rome soon fell to troops of the new "Kingdom of Italy," and the couple departed for Paris. They lived apart for some years, though they often spent time together until his death in 1894. She was the sister of Empress Elisabeth of Austria, Mathilde of Two Sicilies (married to Francesco's half-brother), Helene of Thurn und Taxis etc. Marie Sophia lived (1840-1925).

Parma e Piacenza

1622-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita Aldobrandini

After the death of her husband, Rainuncio I, she was regent for their son, Odoardo I.

1727 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeta Farnese
She transferred her rights to her son, Carlos. In 1759 she was Regent Dowager in Spain until he arrived in the country to take over the throne after the death of her stepson Fernando IIIs death. In 1735 he was king of Duo Sicilie. She was very powerful during the reign of her husband Felipe V (1714-46).  

1727-35 Member of the Regency Dowager Duchess Dorothea Sophia von Neuburg
Co-regent for her daughter-son, Felipo Carlo, who succeeded her husband. He later became king of Spain (1759-88)

1731 Member of Regency Dowager Duchess Enrichetta Maria d'Este (January-December)

1740-48 Princess Maria-Theresia von Habsburg
Empress of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, Queen of Bohemia etc. 1740-80.

1769-1802 Politically Influential Duchess Maria Amalia von Habsburg-Lorraine of Parma and Piacenza  
She was daughter of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria and very influential during the reign of her husband, Fernando de Borbone, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, and showed her abilities as politician during the Napoleonic wars, which meant that Parma was occupied by France in 1796. After her husband's death in 1802, she moved to Prague. And though the marriage was very unhappy, she gave birth to four children, and lived (1746-1802).

1802 Regent Dowager Duchess Maria Amalia von Habsburg-Lorraine of Parma e Piacenza  
From October-November she was head of a regency council after the death of Grand Duke Ferdinando (1751-1802). November a French commissoner took charge. She lived (1746-1804).

1814-47 Duchess Regnant Maria-Luigia von Habsburg-Lorena, Archduchess of Austria
Former Empress of France. She lived (1791-1847)

1854-59 Regent Dowager Duchess Luigia de Borbone-Parma of Parma e Piacenza  
After the assassination of her husband Carlos III she acted as regent for their son, Roberto I di Borbone (1819-54-59-60-1907). In 1859 the territories of the duchies were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1859 and she made formal protestation of the annexation in 1860. She lived (1819-64).


1483-89 Regent Dowager Lady Camilla Covele da Marzano of Pesaro and Gradara
Ruled for Giovanni I of Pesaro, her husband Costanzo I’s illegitimate son with Fiora Boni. She (d. 1490).


1334-37 Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina de La Tour du Pin de Vienne
After the death of her husband, Filippo
I di Savoia, Seignor of Piemonte and titular Prince of Acaia (by the right of his first wife, Isabella I de Villehardouin, Princess of Achaia.) she was regent for their son, Giacomo, who assumed the surname di Savoia-Acaia and title of Signeur of Piemonte and Titular Prince of Achaya. Catherine
She was daughter of Hubert I, Daupin of Vienne. (d. 1357).


1326-28 and 1328-29 Acting Vicar Margaretha of Pisa  

1345-56 Sovereign Countess of Hainault, Flanders,  Holland, Zeeland and Friesland (Belgium and The Netherlands)
Known as Marguerite III d'Avesnes , she acted as representative of her husband Emperor Ludwig IV the Bavarian, Emperor 1328-47, German King 1314, Duke of Bavaria 1294-1347, Count Palatine (Pfalzgraf) von der Pfalz 1317-1329, and Lord of Pisa 1326-29. 1345 she succeeded her brother Willem IV as Countess. She lived (ca.1293-1356)-


From 1111 Regent Dowager Duchess Ailanda of Flanders
For son Duke Gugliermo

From 1027 Regent Dowager Duchess Gaitelgrima di Benevento
Her son Guiamar IV was about 14 or 16 when he succeeded his father Guaimar III, after his 2 elder half-brothers had died. She was the daughter of Pandulf II of Benevento and sister of Pandulf IV of Capua. Mother of 3 sons and 1 daughter and lived (980-after 1027).


1053-56 Margravine Mathilda de Spoleto
1070-82 Margravine
Also ruler in Toscana

1215-19 Regent Dowager Margravine Adelasia di Monferrato
Azalaïs or Adelasia was regent for granson Manfredo III after the death of her husband, Manfredo II as her son, Bonifacio had predeceased his father. Upon her marriage in 1182 she had received lands in Saluzzo, Racconigi, Villa, Centallo and Quaranta. She was a a great patron of troubadours. 1216 she made a treaty with Thomas I of Savoia for a marriage between his son Amadeus and her grand-daughter Agnes. She had to pay tribute on behalf of her grandson, and for the next century the margravate was a vassal of Savoy. When her grandson took over the government, she retunred to church patronage and made many big grants. (d. 1232).

1504-26 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita di Foix of Saluzzo, and the County of Carmagnola   
After the death of her husband, Ludovico II di Saluzzo, Count of Carmagnola from 1475 and Margrave of Saluzzo 1475-87) and (1490-1504), pretender of the Monferrato Margravate (through his mother Isabella del Montferrato (1427-75) and Viceroy of Napoli 1503, she was regent for son Michele Antonio I (1495-1504-28). He was succeeded by his brother Gian Ludovico I, Abbot in Casanova del Villar San Costanzo, who was deposed the following year and was succeeded another brother Francesco Ludovico I, who was murdered in 1537 and succeeded by the fourth brother, Gian Gabriele I, Bishop of Aire, who renounced his ecclesiastic career and was deposed in 1548. Margherita was daughter of Jean de Foix, Count de Benauges and created Earl of Kendal for services to England, but relinquished the title on opting for French nationality, and Margaret Kerdeston, Duchess of Suffolk. (d. 1536).

As member of the Holy Roman Empire, Savoien was
member of the Bench of Counts and Lords of the Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1060-67 and 1080-91 Regent Dowager Duchess Adelaide
For Amadeo II and Umberto II, her son and grandson. Princess Regnant of Torino-Piemont etc. 1048-91. See below

1253-59 Regent Dowager Countess Cecilia del Balzo
After the death of her husband, Amedeo IV, Count of Savoia, Moriana and Chablais, Prince-Bailiff of the Duchy of  Aosta and Duke of Aosta, Marquis of Susa, Marquis in Italy and Imperial Vicar
in "All of Italy", she was regent for son in all his territories. (1275).

1253-59 Lady Beatrice di Savoia of Busca, Roncaglia, Fontanile and Scarnafiggi
Oldest daughter of Count Amedeo IV of Savoy and his first wife, Anne di Borgogna, and was first married to Manfredo III Marchese di Saluzzo and then to Manfredi I Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily. Her half-brother, Bonifacio I, was Count of Savoy etc. (1244-53-63). She (d. 1259).

1253-54 Lady Margherita di Savoia of delle Valli di Matthie, Collegno e Pianezza
Daughter of Count Amedeo IV of Savoy and his first wife, Anne di Borgogna, and was married to Bonifacio II Marchese del Monferrato (1253), and (d. 1254).

1273 Renounced rights of succession Eleonora di Savoia
She was daughter of Tommasso II, Lord of Piemonte (1199-1259) and Johanna I of Flanders and Hainault, had three older brothers, and was married Louis de Forez, Seigneur of Dombes and Beajeu. (d. 1296).

1366-67, 1383 and 1391-93 Regent Duchess Bona de Bourbone
Also known as Bonne de Bourbon, she was first in charge of the government when her husband, Count Amedeo VI of Savoy during his absence on crusade. He then desingated her as regent for their son, Count Amedeo VII, in 1383, who in his turn had desingated her as regen for his son Amedeo VIII in 1391, which led to a dispute with her daughter-in-law, Bonne de Berry, and she renounced her role in May 1395 and retired to Mâcon. She was daughter of Duke Pierre
I de Bourbon and Isabella de Valois. She lived (1341-1402).

1393-98 Regent Dowager Duchess Bona de Berry of Savoie, Dame de Faucigny and de Carlat
Also known as Bonne de Berry, she fought her mother-in-law, Bona de Bourbone, who had initially become regent after the death of her husband, Count Amedeo VII of Savoy, Aosta and Moriana (1383-91) and Count of Nice (1388-91). But after two years she as able to take over the regency for her son, Amedeo VIII who was Count of Savoy, Aosta, Moriana, Nice and Geneva, who later became the 1st Duke of Savoy (1416-34) and Prince del Piemonte (1418-34) until his abdication 1434, when he became a religious hermit, later antipope and biship. She was daughter
of Duke Jean I of Berry and Jeanne d'Armagnac and lived (1362-1435).

1466-69 Regent Duchess Yolande de Valois of Savoia, the counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte
1472-78 Regent Dowager Duchess of Savoy
Regent during her husband, Amedeo IX's abcense and ilness from the Duchy and after his death for their son, Duke Philiberto I of Savoy and Titular-king of Armenia, Cyprus and Jerusalem, who died 18 years old in 1482. She was daughter of KingCharles VII of France and Maria di Napoli, and lived (1434-78).

1490-96 Regent Dowager Duchess Bianca di Monferrato of Savoia, the counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte     
Married to Carlo I, who was surnamed the Warrior was the Duke of Savoy 1482-90 and titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem from 1485. After his death
she was regent for their son, Carlo II (1489-96). She lived (1472-1519.

1637-38 and 1638-48 Regent Dowager Duchess Marie-Chrétienne de France of Savoia   
After her husband's death she was regent for two sons, Francesco and Carlo Emanuele II. As princess of France her official title was Madame Royale. She lived (1606-63).

1652-74 Sovereign Duchess Marie Jeanne de Savoie-Nemours of Nemours (France) 
1659-1724 Duchess of Aumale
1675-84 Regent Dowager Queen  of Savoia  
Also known as Marie-Giovanna-Babtiste, she succeeded father, Charles Amédée de Savoie-Nemours of Aumale in Nemours and uncle in Aumale. After the death of her husband Carlo-Emmanuelle II of Savoia, she was regent for son Victor-Amedée of Sardegnia (1666-1732). She lived (1644-1724).

1800-16 Regent Dowager Princess Maria Christina von Sachsen of Savoia-Carignan (Italy)
In Italian she was known as Maria Cristina Albertina di Sassonia-Curlandia. After the death of her husband, Carlo Emanuele di Savoia-Carignano (1770–1800), she was regent for their son, Carlo Alberto di Savoia (1798-1849), who succeeded his distant cousin as King of Piemont-Sardinia and Duke of Savoy in 1831. She married the French Prince Jules Maximilien Thibault de Montléart (1787–1865) and spend the rest of her life in Paris. The oldest daughter of Prince Karl Christian von Sachsen and Polen, Duke of Kurland and Semgallen and Countess Franziska von Corvin-Krasinski and also mother of Maria Elisabeth von Savoia-Carigan. She lived (1770–1851).


1685-1744 Margravine Maria Enrichetta del Carretto Millesimo of Savona and di Grana, Countess di Millesimo  
Daughter of Ottone Enrico del Carretto, Titular Margrave of Savona etc, Knight of the Golden Fleece, Field Marshall of the Empire, Governor and General Captain of the Netherlands 1682-85 and Countess Maria Theresia von Herberstein, widow of Franz Adam Graf von Losenstein. She married  Philippe Charles François d’Aremberg, 3rd Duc d’Aremberg, Duc d’Arschot (1663-91), a relative of her father's second wife Maria Theresa d’Arenberg, daughter of Charles Eugene 2nd Duc d’Aremberg by Marie Henriette de Cusance et de Vergy (1666-1716).
Apperently both Regent of Arenberg from 1691 and of Bergen-op-Zoom from 1728. Maria Enrichetta was born in Vienna and died in Brabant, and lived (1671-1744).

Sicilia (Sicily)

1101-12 Regent Dowager Queen Adelisa del Vasto  
1101-1118 Sovereign Countess of Salona
Widow of Roger I, she was a very efficient and successful regent for the sons Simon and Roger II. After having handed over the government to Roger, she travelled to Jerusalem and married Bodouin I, but it was not a success and they divorced in 1117 where after she returned to Sicilia. She lived (1072-1118).

1156-66 Joint Ruler Queen Margarita de Navarra 
1166-72 Regent Dowager Queen of Sicily and Malta
Daughter of King Garcia VI and married to Guillermo I, Prince of Capua, before becoming co-king in 1151. Regent for son Guillermo II (b. 1154-). Since 1167 the sources name her as co-regent and in 1168 a regency council consisting of 10 people was formed, with her has head. She lived (1128/35-82).

1194 Regent Dowager Queen Sibylla di Medina
Daughter of Count Ruggerio di Accera and Caecile de Madania. Married to Tankredo di Lecce, King of Sicilia (1190-94) and regent for son Guillermo III, who succeeded his brother Roger III in 1193. But the supporters of Queen Constanza gained ground and Constanza’s husband, Emperor Heinrich VI, offered her son the position as Count of Lecce in exchange of the royal insignia. But it seems that she got involved in a conspiracy against Heinrich, and therefore she, Guillaume and her three daughters were imprisoned and deported to Germany, where she and the daughters were placed in a convent. After Heinrich's death, they managed to escape to France.

1194-98 Queen Regnant Constanza
1195-97 Regent of Sicily
1197-98 (28.98-17.05) Sole Ruer of Sicily
Also known as Constance, she was married to Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI and daughter of King Roger II of Sicily. In 1185 she was named possible heiress of Sicily by her nephew King Guillermo II. On his death in 1189, however, the Sicilian nobles, wishing to prevent German rule in Sicily, chose Constance's nephew Tancredo of Lecce as William's successor. Emperor Heinrich VI conducted an unsuccessful campaign in 1191 against Tancred during which Constance was captured but was released because she was pregnant. After Tancred's death in 1194 they were crowned King and Quee of Sicily and she gave birth to her only child, Friedrich. She was named regent in the absence of her husband in 1195 but clearly considered herself to be the rightful heiress and continued the forceful rule of her predecessor. When he died in 1197 she ruled alone for a year. In order to save the throne of Sicily for her infant son, Federico (later Holy Roman emperor as Friedrich II), Constance renounced the German kingship for Frederick and the following year he was crowned as king of Sicily, continuing to act as regent until her death. In her will she had named Pope Inocenz II as guardian for her son. She lived (1154-1198).

212-22 Regent Dowager Queen Constance de Aragón 
She was regent in the absence of her husband. She was the second wife of Friedrich III, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1198-1251, and successor of his first wife was Queen Constanza of Sicily. She was the mother of Konrad IV, who also became emperor and king of Sicily. She (d. 1222). 

1283-85 Governor Queen Constance de Aragón
For Husband Pedro I of Aragón and Sicily (1282-85)

1342-47 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabetta di Carinzia
Elisabeth von Kärnthen und Tyrol was also known as Isabella von Göerz, and she was regent for her son, Ludovico (1337-42-55)after the death of her husband, Pietro II. Of her other 8 children the two daughters, Costanza and Eufemia were regents respectively 1352-54 and 1355-57 for Ludovico and their brother Federico IV (1341-77). She lived (1298-1347)

1352-54 Regent Princess Constanza   
The unmarried daughter of Pietro II of Sicily (1337-42) and Elisabeth of Carinthia of Tirol, she was regent during the reign of her brother Luigi, who was king 1342-55. Her sister Eufemia was regent for their other brother, Federico from 1355. Constanza lived (1324-55)

1355-57 Regent Princess Eufemia
Followed her sister as regent.

1377-1402 Queen Regnant Maria 
1377-79 Duchess of Athens and Neopatria and Titular Queen of Jerusalem
At the age of 15 she succeeded her father, King Federico with Artale of Alagona as regent. 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 she married Martin the Younger of Aragon and two years later they returned together with his father, Martin the Old, King of Aragon, and Maria received the crown by the Sicilian Barons. She died without a heir, and lived (1361-1402).

1409-15 Vicereine Blanca de Navarra
She was appointed by her father-in-law King Martin II the Older of Argon (1395-1410) and Sicily (1409-10), where he succeeded his son, Martin the I Younger.
She reigned as Queen Regnant Blanca I of Navarra 1425-41.

1677 Governor Leonor de Moura y Aragón
Acting Vice-Reine of Sicily after death of her first husband, Anielo de Guzmán who was vice-rey for King Carlos III of Spain as King of Sicilia and Napoli. Her second husband was Pedro Homodei y Pacheco, 2nd Marquess of Almonacid de los Oteros. She succeeded her father, Francisco de Moura y Melo as 4th Marchioness de Castelo Rodrigo, 1675-1706 3th Countess of Lumiares, 2th Duchess of Nocera
in 1675. She had no children and was succeeded by her sister, Juana, who also held the position of Lady of las Islas Terceras in the Azores from 1706.
She lived (circa 1630-1706).

City and State of Siena

1717-31 Governor Violante Beatrice di Baviera
After the death of her husband, Ferdinando III de' Medici, Hereditary Prince of Toscana, she was appointed Governatrice of the city, while his brother, Gian Gastone succeeded his father, Cosimo III as Grand Duke of Toscana in 1723 - he was the last male member of the de' Medici-family. Born as Beatrix of Bayern, she was daughter of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria and Adelaide Henriette of Savoia, and lived (1673-1731).


1053-56 and 1070-87 Countess Regnant Mathilda de Carnossa
From 1076 Margravine of Toscana, Parma, Modena and parts of Lombardia, Reggio and Ferrara. (See below)

1499-1502 Governor
Lucrezia Borgia of Spoleto and Foligno

As regent of Ferrara in the absence of her husband, Alfonso I d'Este in 1506,
she issued an edict in favour of the Jews. 1501-02 her father, Pope Alexander VI put her in charge of the Administration of the Vatican and the Catholic Church. She lived (1480-1519).


1358...Sovereign Princess Tommasa Orsini-Angelo-Comneni
She was confirmed as Princess the year after her father was assassinated. She was daughter of Niceforo II, Despot of Epiro and Tessaglia, Count of Cefalonia and Zante, Governor of Aenos and Maria Cantacuzena of Byzantine. Married to Prince Simeon Uros of Serbia (d. 1371).



1463-65 Reigning Princess Isabella de Clermont
Isabella di Chiaromonte succeeded her uncle, Giovanni Antonio del Balzo Orsini and had been married to Ferrante di Aragona since 1444/45, the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon who had conquered the Napolitan kingdom from French Angevins. Her husband became King of Napoli in 1458 and through her claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The elder daughter of Tristan di Chiaramonte (Tristan de Clermont-Lodeve), Count of Cupertino, and Catherine of Taranto, daughter of Maria d'Enghien, she was mother of 6 children, and lived (circa 1424-65).


1882-86 Regent Queen Pasqua Favale of Tavolara
In charge of the government in one of the smallest kingdoms in the world on the Island south of Sardinia of the same name during the ilness of her husband, Paolo I (1845-1886). Her father in law, Giuseppe Bertoleoni, had been acknowledged as an independent sovereign monarch during a visit by King Carlos Alberto of Sardinia in 1836. Tavolara was not included in the Italian unification, and her husband actively sought and obtained recognition from Italy. During his reign, in 1861 the Italian government paid 12.000 lire for land at the northeast end of the island to build a lighthouse, which began operating in 1868. After his death, the island became a republic according to his wishes with a president and council of six elected every six years by a vote of the people, male and female. Its third president was elected in 1896, but the monarchy was reinstated in 1899.

1927-29 Regent Princess Mariangela Bertoleoni of Tavolara
Took up the government at the request of her nephew King Paolo during his absence from the Kingdom at the Island of Tavolara. At the time of her death it was reported that Italy was to take over, but her nephew returned and ruled until his death in 1962.. She was daughter of king Paolo I and Queen Pasqua Favale, who was regent 1882-86, and lived (1841-1934).

1962-69 Regent Maria Molinas Bertoleoni of Tavolara
Laid claim to the throne at a time when her cousin, King Carlos II, also claimed the crown.
The same year a NATO station was installed at the Island, the effective end of Tavolaran sovereignty. She was daughter of the former regent, Princess Mariangela and Bachisio Molinas, and lived (1869-1969)

About 2000- Regent Princess ....Princess Maddalena
Could be the sister of Antonio, who took over the throne in 1993.

Toscana (Tuscany)

1053-76 Margravine Regnant Beatrice of Bar

1076-1115 Margravine Regnant Mathilda de Carnossa
Countess Regnant 1053-56 and 1070-87. From 1076 Margravine of Toscana, Parma, Modena and parts of Lombardia, Reggio and Ferrara. (See Spoleto)

1621 Regent Dowager Duchess Chrétienne de Lorraine of Toscana  
Christine was widow of Fernando I (1549-87-1609) and acted as co-regent for grandson Fernando II. She was the daughter of Charles II and Claude de France and lived (1565-1637).

1621 Regent Dowager Duchess Maddalena de Austria of Toscana   
After the death of her husband, Cosimo II, she acted as regent for Fernando II (1621-70). Magalena von Habsburg lived (1589-1631).

1737-43 "Hereditary Grand Duchess" Anna Maria Luisa De’ Medici
After the death of her husband, Johann Wilhelm of Sachsen in 1716, she moved back to Toscana. Her father, Cosimo III, died in 1723 and since neither she, nor her brother Gian Gastone, had any children, future of the Grand Duchy was of great concern. 1735 it was occupied by Spain but a treaty was concluded making Franz Stephan von Lothringen (husband of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria-Hungaria) heir in 1737. Her brother died soon after, and she inherited the family's enormous possessions and soon after concluded a "Treaty or Convention of the Family", with her successors, the Grand Dukes of Lorraine in 1737, by which all the art treasures belonging to the Medici family became property of the city of Florence museums for the enjoyment of people from all over the world The title had been transferred to Franz Stephan von Lothringen, who descended from a female member of the De' Medici family. She did not have any children, and lived (1667-1743).

1809-14 Governor General and Grand Duchess  Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte
She was Governor General with courtesy title of Grand Duchess. Also Princess of Lucca-Piombino. She lived (1777-1820)

Circa 1849-59 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Maria Antonia de Borbone-Napoli of Toscana  
The wife of Leopold II von Habsburg of Toscana, she advocated the close ties between Toscana and Austria and was opposed to the Italian nationalism which led to the unification in 1859. The family went into exile, and her husband died 1870. Maria Antonia was daughter of Francesco I of Napoli Sicilia and lived (1814-98).

Torino-Piemont (Turin-Suse-Auriate-Iurea)

1034-91 Sovereign Countess Adelaide of Turino-Piemont and Aurate, Bredulo, Asti, Albi, Albenga, Auriate, Iurea, Suse and Ventimigha
1060-67 and 1080-91 Regent of Savoia   
Daughter of Margrave Manfredo II Odelrich of Turino and Bertha d’Este. From her father’s death she was de-facto ruler over the Margravine of Turino but officially she only used the title Countess and her three husbands were titular Margraves. She was married to Duke Hermann IV von Schwaben, Margrave Enrico di Monferrato and Count Oddo de Maurienne I of Savoia (1021-59). After his death she became regent for their son Amadeo II (1050-60-80) and then for his successor. Adelaide had a mediating role in the fight between the Pope and emperor Heinrich IV, who was married to her daughter Bertha. Adelaide had three other children with her third husband, and lived (circa 1015-91). Some sources see her long reign as the reign of mother and daughter, named Adelaide I and II, but this is wrong.

Circa 1080-91 Countess and Lady Agnese di Savoia of Torina and Alba
She claimed the succession after the death of her father, Pietro I, Count of Savoia, Aosta,
Moriana and Chablais, Marquis of Susa and Marquis in Italia, Count and Lord di Torino, Auriate, Bredulo, Asti, Alba, Albenga and Ventimiglia, wich were associated to him by his mother, Adelaide in 1057.(1048-after 1078). She married Frederic I de Montbéliard, Count of Luetzelburg (d. 1091).  In 1091 she entered a convent.
(d. after 1110)


1323-28 Regent Dowager Countess Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern of Görz (Germany)
1323-26 and 1335-38 Regent of Treviso (Italy)
1332-34 Captain General of Aquileia and Administrator of Friuli (Italy)

After the death of her second husband, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, she was regent for son Johann Heinrich IV. Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). She was daughter of Duke Stephan I of Nieder-Bayern and Jutta von Schweidnitz, and lived (1302-60).


1460-72 Regent Duchess Battista Sforza
Reigned In charge of the government during the absence of her husband, Duke Federico from the state. She was the daughter of Alessandro Sforza and Constanza da Varano. She lived (1446-72).

1508-16 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabetta Gonzaga
After the death of her husband, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, she was regent for their adopted child, Francesco Maria I della Rovere, the son of his sister. He was sickly and impotent, and they had no children, but she refused to divorce him and nursed him through his illnesses. 1502 Cesare Borgia occupied Urbino, and they went into exile until 1504.. Her court attracted writers, artists, and scholars, and she was involved in the power politics of her time. She in close contact with her siter-in-law of Isabella d'Este. In 1506 she reluctantly went with Lucrezia Borgia to Ferrara, where Lucrezia was married to Alfonso I d'Este. In June 1516 she was expelled from Urbino by Pope Leo X, who wanted to give the duchy to his nephew, Lorenzo de Medici. Together with her niece Leonora she found refuge in Ferrara where she died in Ferrara. The daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua and Magaret of Bavaria, she lived (1471-1526).

1519-21 Duchess Regnant Catharina de' Medici
Queen and Regent of
France and Countess de Valois

1631-96 "Heiress" Vittoria della Rovere
Her father, Hereditary Duke Federico Ubaldo, was  poisoned at the age 18 and when his father, Francesco Maria II, died in 1631 the duchy was re-icorpcorporated to Papal State. Vittoria inherited the vast personal inheritance of the family. She was married to Fernando II de' Medici of Toscana (1610-21-70), and lived (1622-94).


926-28 Senatrix Theodora of Rome and Umbria
Succeeded husband. Very powerful and influential in the Papal State. 

928-32/37 Senatrix Marozia of Rome and Umbria
Succeeded mother. Reigned together with King Hugo of Italy and her son Principes and Senator Albierto. 

Titular Princesses and Duchesses 
Owners and administrators of feudal fiefs and territories, feudalism was abolished in 1806/12. The list is not exhaustive

1528-70 Feudal Duchess Isabella Colonna of Traetto, Contess di Fondi and Ceccano, Lady of Paliano, Olevano, Serrone, Zancati, Morulo, Acquaviva, Maranola, Carpello, Sperlonga, Monticelli, Inola, Pastena and S. Chigia, Capranica Prenestina, Genzano, Genazzano, Guliano, Montecmopatri, Sgurgola, Nettuno, Ciliano, Castel Mattia, Supino, San Lorenzo, San Vito, Ceccano, Ofi, Falvaterra, Sonnino and Vallecorsa 
She was  heiress of Traetto and Fondi and pretender to the other fiefs. Fist married to Lodovico II Gonzaga, 3rd Count di Sabbioneta (1500-32) and then to Philippe de Lannoy, Prince de Sulmona. She lived (1513-70)

Until 1559 Feudal Marchioness Diana de Cardona of Giuliano, Contessa della Chiusa, Baronessa di Borgia 
The second wife of Vespasiano I, Marchese di Sabionetta, Principe di Sabionetta, 1st Duca di Sabionetta, Conte di Roddi e Ricalta, Barone di Caramanico e Tutino, Marchese di Ostiano, Conte di Fondi, Duca di Traetto, Viceroy of Navarra an Valencia, Knight of Golden Fleece Order. She died upon the delivery of a child 

1578-90 Feudal Princess Zenobia del Carretto of Melfi 
She succeded her father, Marcantonio Doria del Carretto, as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and married Gian Andrea Doria, Duke di Tursi and Marchese di Torriglia etc. (1540-1606). She lived (1541-90)

Circa 1578-1610 Marchessa de Licodia e Principessa di Palazzolo Donna Camilla Samtapan Ruffo di Calabria 
Succeeded first husband as 2. Principessa di Palazzolo. Her son was married to Donna Giovanna Ruffo di Calabria. 

1587-1630 2. Principessa di Scilla Donna Maria Ruffo
Also 8. Contessa di Sincpoli and 1. Contessa di Nicotera. Succeeded uncle to the princely title. Her mother and mother's mother were Dame di Nicotera. Married to relative and succeeded by daughter. She lived (1574-1630)

1591-1637 Feudal Duchess Isabella of Sabbioneta e Treatto, Contessa di Roddi e Ricalta, Baronessa di Caramanico e Tutino, Marchesa di Ostiano, Contessa di Fondi 
She succeded her brother, Vespasiano I, and married to Don Luigi Carafa Principe di Stigliano (d. 1630). She
was succeeded by granddaughter, and lived (1565-1637).

Around 1592 Donna Caterina Caracciolo, Heiress of the Earldom of S.Angelo de' Lombardi.
Married to Ettore IV Duc of Monteleone married in 1592 (fief between Salerno and Bari)

1600s Princess Giovanna Campitelli of Strongoli and Counts of Melissa
She married Geronimo Pignatelli.

1600s Marchioness Anna Giustiniana Aymerich of San Vincenzo
Married Domenico Pignatelli Marquis of Cerchiara and Prince of Noja.

Until 1622 Countess Caterina Caracciolo of S.Angelo dei Lombardi
She was married to Ettore Pignatelli , Count of Borrello and Duke of Monteleone, and lived (1573-1622).

1621-37 Territorial Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini (Senior) of Rossano Calabro (Italy)
Niece of Pope Clemente VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini) (1536-92-1605) and universal heir of her brother, Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandino (d. 1621). She administrered her places, cities and feudal fiefs in Calabria, Romagna, Lazio with great competence. and laid the foundations for the future Duchies of Carpineto, Maenza, Gavignano, Montelanico and Gorga, and she transformed the feudal territory into a dukedom also including several surrounding villages. In 1629, she ordered the building of St. Peter's Church, which she provided with gorgeous reliquaries and frescoes, the best known being a fresco attributed to the famous painter Caravaggio. She was married to Gianfrancesco Aldobrandini and mother two daughters and one son, who also died in 1637 and the family inheritance was therefore taken over by her granddaughter, Olimpia Junior. (1567-1637)

1626 Feudal Baronessa di Calcusa Eleonore Mastrantonio Bardi Centelles

She succeded her father, Vincenzo Mastrantonio, but sold the feudal title to Giuseppe Bologna shortly after.

From 1629 6. Duchessa di Aardo Donna Caterina Acquavina d'Argona

1630-50 3. Principessa di Scilla Donna Giovanna Ruffo di Calabria
Also 9. Contessa di Sincpoli and 2. Contessa di Nicotera. Succeeded mother and succeeded by relative. She lived (1591-1650)

1633-79 Titular Princess Maria Polissena Landi of Val di Taro con Val di Ceno (Valditaro), Marchioness di Bardi, Countess and Baroness di Compiano, Lady di Valdena, Bedonia etc.
1627 her father Federico I Landi optained imperial permission to let her succeed all the fiefs of the Consanguin House of Svevi and Genoese Princely family. She was married to Pagano Giovanni Andrea II, Principe di Melfi, Marchese di Torriglia, Santo Stefano d’Aveto, Ottone, Carrega, Garbagna, Cabella e Fontanarossa, Conte di Loano, etc., Viceroy of Sardinia (1607-40)
, and lived (1608-1679).

1637-81 Territorial Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini (Junior) of Rossano
Daughter of Jorge Aldobrandini (1591-1637) and Hipólita Lodovisi, she succeeded her grand mother, Olimpia Senior. First married to Paolo Borghese and after his death to Camillo Pamphilj (Panfili). She succeeded her uncle, and was the sole heiress of the Aldobrandini territories and grand fortune, and she transformed the feudal territory into a dukedom also including several surrounding villages. The Aldobrandini family's wide domain enjoyed a great artistic and urban growth, and they maintained their dukedom until 1816, when Pope Pius VI abolished feudalism. Mother of 5 children, she lived (1623-81)

1637-44 Duchessa di Sabbioneta Donna Anna Carafa de Stigliano-Gonzaga
Married to Duc de Medinas de Torres, Don Ricardo de Guzmán

Around 1639 Princess di Castevetrano Giovanna Agliavia Aragona Cortes, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Marchioness of Avola and Valle Oaxaca, Countess of Borghetto and Priego, Duchess of Terranova, Grandee of Spain  
Married Ettore Pignatelli, Duke of Monteleone and Count of Borrello.

Until 1644 5. Principessa di Squillace Donna Anna de Borgia
Married to Francisco Borgia, Viceroy of Peru.

1644-65  6. Principessa di Squillace 
Her name is not known, but she was married to a brother of Francisco de Borgia

Around 1646 Countess Maria Cristina di Altemps of Altemps 
She was daughter of Angelica de' Medici and Count Gianpetro di Altemps and married Ipollito, Duke Lante delle Rovere

1646 Duchess Angélique Djaceti d'Aquaviva d'Arragon d'Atri, Princesse de Melphi
The title was confirmed for her, her future husband and " of their children male or female, the eldest, representing the houses of Atri and Melphe, shall have rank and precedence of duke." She was the grandmother of Louis-Saladin d'Anglure de Bourlémont Djaceti d'Aquaviva d'Arragon, prince de Melphe, duc d'Atri, marquis de Sy, baron des Armoises, married to Antoinette Colbert.

1647-99 Princess de Palestrina Lucrécia Barberini
Daughter of Taddeo Barberini and Anna Colonna and married to duke Francisco I de Este of Modena (1610-58) and mother of Rainaldo di Este, who succeeded his older half-brother as Duke of Modena in 1587. She lived (1630-99)

1649-circa 55 Feudal Baronessa di Calcusa Giulia Bardi Pignatelli Centelles Spatafora
Married to Giulio Pignatelli

1655-67 Vice-Regina Geronima Colonna of Aragona, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, 5th Duchess of Monteleone, Countess of Borrello
She was daughter of  Ettore III, IV Duca di Monteleone (1572–1622) , Viceroy of Catalogna  and Caterina Caracciolo Countess of S. Angelo dei Lombardi. She married Fabrizo Pignatelli, V. Marchese di Cerchiara, III Prince di Noja.

1657 Regent Dowager Marchioness Anna Maria Carafo of Sant Emiliano, Botrugno and Melpignano
After the death of her husband, Carlo Castriota Acquaviva d'Aragona, she became administrator of the feudal marchionate for her son Francesco, who was succeeded by his daughter, Beatrice in 1679.

1658-70 Donna Aurelia Spinola, Marchesa di Dego, Piana, Giusvalla e Cagna
Daughter of Don Luca Spinola, Principe di Molfetta, Marchese di Dego, Piana, Giusvalla e Cagna, Patrizio Genovese, e di Pellina
Spinola, and married to Ercole II Grimaldi, Marquis of Campagna and  Baux. Succeeded by daughter, Princess Giovanna Maria Grimaldi. Aurelia lived (1623-51).

1665-92  7. Principessa di Squillace Donna Francisca de Borgia
Succeeded the 6th Princess, probably her mother. Succeeded by daughter

1667-94 3. Principessa di Campofranco Donna Francesa Lucchesi Palli
Married to a relative, Baron Salvatore Lucchesi di Delia

1670-94 Principessa Giovanna Maria Grimaldi Marchesa di Dego, Piana, Cagna e Giusvalla
Succeeded mother, Donna Aurelia Spinola, and married Carlo Giovanni Battista di Simiana, 1. Prince di Montafia, Marquis di Livorno, di Roatto e Maretto, di Pianezza e  di Castelnuovo di

Around 1670 Giovanna Pignatelli, Duchess of Monteleone, Marchessa of Valle Oaxaca etc. and Heiress of the fortunes Tagliavia (Sicily and Mexico)

She marrried Niccolo Pignatelli V Prince of Noja 

Princess di Castelvetrano Giovanna II Aragona Pignatelli Cortes, Machioness of Avola, Duchess of Terranova, Countess of Borghetto, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire
Daughter of  Andrea Fabrizio (?-1677) Duke of Monteleone . Marrried to Ettore Pignatelli , Marquis del Vaglio. Succeeded by son Prince
Diego, Marquis of Valle Oaxaca later Duke of Terranova and Monteleone.

1679-96 Feudal Marchioness Beatrice Acquaviva d'Aragona of Sant Emiliano, Melpignano Botrugno, Trepuzzi and Vaste
Daughter of  Francesco, she died without heirs, and the feudal lands were inhierited by the Marchese di Trepuzzi don Geronimo Acquaviva

1679-81 Regent Francesca Caracciolo of the Duchy of Atri, Margravate dell’Arena and County of Giulianova
After the death of her husband, Giosia Acquaviva d'Aragona, (1631-79), she was regent for her oldest son,
Giangirolamo Acquaviva d' Aragona, (1663-1709), who was succeeded by 5 sons and a daughter Isabella Acquaviva d'Aragona, 20 Duchess d' Atri (1703-55-60), who did not have any children. She later entered the Monestry of Santa Cecilia in Rome and lived (1646-1715)
1685-92 Reigning Princess Anna Maria Ravaschieri Fieschi Pinelli of Belmonte, Marquise of Galatone and Countess of Copertino (Italy)
Soccessor of Daniele Domenico Ravaschieri Fieschi, who held the title (1645-85).

From 1692  8. Principessa di Squillace Donna Francisca Idiquez de Borgia
Succeeded mother, succeeded by another woman.

1697-1717 Marchessa di Caravaggio Donna Bianca-Maria Gonzaga
She was married to J.W.von Sinzendorf.

Around 1700 Marchessa di Cavour Donna Maria Giovanna di Trecesson
The mistress of Carlo Emanuelle II di Savoie and mother of Carlo di Savoie, Conte di Sales.

From 1700 Principessa di Trecastagni di Buccheri e di Castrorao Donna Maria Alliata di Giovanni
She succeeded to the titles from her grandfather and mother. Married to Don Galliata, Prince de Villafranca. 

1706-25 Maria Irene Delfina di Simiana, Principessa di Montafia, Marchesa di Dego, Livorno e Pianezza, etc.,
The 5th child of Carlo Giambattista di Simiana (1632-1706) and his first wife, Giovanna Maria Grimaldi di Monaco, Marchesa di Dego, Cagna, Giusvallo e Piana (1641-94). She was married to Michele III Imperiali Principe di Francavilla, Marchese di Oria e Signore di Casalnuovo (circa 1665-1739), and lived (1670-1725)

Around 1720 Countess Maria Francesca de Moncajo-Blanes y Centelles of  Fuentes 

Married Antonio Pignatelli of the Marquis of Cerchiara and of the Princes of Noja in 1720

1722 Princess di Belmonte Anna Pinelli-Ravaschieri, Marquise of Galatone, Countess of Copertino 
Married Antonio  Pignatelli, Marquis of San Vincenzo in 1721.

1725-58 Principessa di Fiano Maria Francesca Ottoboni
Married to Piergregorio Boncampagno

Until 1726 9. Principessa di Squillace Donna Anna Maria Idiaques de Borgia
Succeeded the 8. Princess and succeeded by daughter. 

1726-28 10. Principessa di Squillace Donna Maria Antonia Pimetel de Ibarra de Borgia
Also Principessa di Borgia. The last of the line.

1728-60 3. Princess di Strogoli Lucrezia Pignatelli, 4th Duchessa di Tolve and 4th Contessa di Melissa  
She inherited the fief in the Calabria region from her father, the 2nd Prince. In 1719 she married
Ferdinando Pignatelli Knight of the Toson d'Or , Prince of the Holy Roman Empire , Duke of Tolve , Grandee of Spain She was succeeded by her son Salvatore (1730-1792).

1730-84 4. Duchessa di Saponara Donna Vittoria Alliata di Giovanni
Also Principessa di Montreale e di Ucria.
She succeeded father and mother, Flavia Pagano, Principessa di Ucria. Married to Don D. Alliata, 5. Principe di Villafranca. 

740 Hereditary Countess Maria Laura di Carpegna of Carpegna
When her father Francesco X died, she inhereited the county, but according to his will from 1747, her son Antonio di Carpegna Gabrielli, became the ruler. She (d. 1773)

Around 1742 Duchess Maria Luisa Gonzaga of Solferino
She married Joaquim (Gioacchino ) Pignatelli, I Count of Fuentes in 1742.

1742-50 4. Principessa del Avella e Tursi Donna Maria Teresa Doria 
Daughter of Don Giovanni Andrea II, 3rd Duca di Tursi, Principe di Avella, Grande de Espana of 1st Class 8.4.1712, (1663-1742) and Donna Livia, daughter of Don Marcantonio Grillo, Marchese di Clarafuentes e Signore di Capriata. First married to Don Giovanni Andrea IV Doria Pamphili Landi, until the marriage was annulled in 1741 and secondly with Lazzaro Maria Doria, Marchese di Tizzano, Patrizio Genovese (d. 1753) and mother of Maria Giovanna Doria. She lived (1710-50)
1750-1832 Feudal Duchess Maria Giovanna Doria of Tursi, 5. Principessa di Avella, Marchesa di Caravaggio (Italy)
She was daughter of Giovanna Maria Teresa Doria, Duchessa di Tursi, Principessa di Avella, etc (1710-42-50) and her second husband, Lazzaro Maria Doria, Marchese di Tizzano, Patrizio Genovese (d. 1753), married to Don Andrea Doria, Marchese di Caravaggio, Conte di Loano, (1738-71) who was son of
Bianca Maria von Sinzedorf, Marchesa di Caravaggio (1717.83) and grandson of Johann Wilhelm von Sinzedorf and  Bianca Maria Sforza, Marchesa di Caravaggio. Her daughter, Donna Bianca Doria (d. 1829),  held the title of Tursi, a title inherited by her husband and son. She lived (1743-1832).

1752-77 Marchessa di San Martino Donna Anna-Riccarda d'Este

Married to Albercio, Principe di Barbiano-Belgiojoso

1755-60 20. Duchessa di Atri Isabella Acquaviva d'Aragona
Also Signora di Terano, Contessa di San Flavio di Moro, Gonzano, Ripa d'Avardo, Poggioa, Bassano, Torre del Tronto etc. She succeeded four brothers, no children, she lived (1703-60)

Until 1758 41. Duchessa di Fiano Donna Maria Francesca Ottobindi

Around 1770 Princess Giulia Piccolomini of Valle and Maida, Duchess of Girifalco and Lacconia 
Married Ettore Pignatelli, XI Duke of Monteleone in 1770.

From 1771 Principessa di Sepino Donna Carlotta della Reonessa
Also Duchessa di San Martino

1794-1830 8. Duchessa di Bagnara Donna Ippolita Ruffo
Also Principessa di San t'Antimo, 7. Principessa di Motta San Giovanni. Married her uncle Don Nicolo Ruffo, 7. Duche di Bagnara, whom she succeeded. She was succeeded by the  children of a female relative. She lived (1758-1830)

1817-31 Principessa di Spinoso Donna Lucrezia Ruffo
Also Principessa di Ruti and  Duchessa del Sasso
She inherited her titles from brother and cousin.She lived (1746-1831)

1818-64 Donna Margherita Colonna, Princess of Castiglione, Duchess of Miraglia, Marquise of Giuliano, Baroness of Santa Caterina, Lady of Aydone, Burgio, Contessa, Valcorrente, Coltumaro, Val di Demone and Val di Mazzara 
The daughter of Don Filippo III Guiseppe, 12th Prince and Duke of Paliano, Principe Assistente al Soglio Pontificio, Gran Connestabile del Regno di Napoli, Prince de Castiglione etc. and Caterina di Savoia Carignano, she married Giulio Rospigliosi 6th Prince Rospigliosi and 6th Duke of Zagarolo (1781-1859), and lived (1786-1864).

Around 1818 Donna Alessandra Sadefora e Colonna, Duchess di San Rosalia
Married to the British diplomat Benjamin Ingham. Lived in Napoli.

1826 Duchessa d’Adragna Donna Stefania Beccadelli di Bologna, 8th Principessa di Camporeale, Marchesa d’Altavilla, Marchesa della Sambuca, Baronessa di San Giacomo li Comici, Signore di Macellaro, Pietralunga Sparacia, Dammusi e Mortilli, Signora dei diritti di ½ grano sulle tonnare di Solanto, Arenella e San Niccolò di Pontorno, Baronessa della Gabella del biscotto, del canape, del pepe e dei salumi di Messina e Grande di Spagna di prima classe
Succeeded after the death of her father Don Salvatore- Married to Don Domenico Beccadelli di Bologna

1826 Duchessa d’Adragna Donna Marianna  Beccadelli di Bologna, 8th Principessa di Camporeale, Marchesa d’Altavilla, Marchesa della Sambuca, Baronessa di San Giacomo li Comici, Signore di Macellaro, Pietralunga Sparacia, Dammusi e Mortilli, Signora dei diritti di ½ grano sulle tonnare di Solanto, Arenella e San Niccolò di Pontorno, Baronessa della Gabella del biscotto, del canape, del pepe e dei salumi di Messina e Grande di Spagna di prima classe
Succeeded after the death of her sister. 1825 married to Don Giuseppe Beccadelli di Bologna

Until 1862 Duchessa di Casalasporo e Pieragalla Donna Giula Milazzi
Married to the 24th Duce di Atri who was succeeded by the daughter of their second son. She lived (1828-1862)

1864-76 Princess Maria Vittoria Carlotta Enrichetta Dal Pozzo della Cisterna di Cisterna d’Asti (Queen of Spain)
Marchsa di Garessio e Voghera, Contessa di Barbaresco, Bonvicino, Briga, Diano, Neive, Perno, Ponderano, Romagnano, Viverone, Baronessa di Salerano, Lady di Banchette, Camburzano, Ceretto, Cimena, Coggiola, Donelasco, Grinzane, Montecalvo, Olesi, Salussola, S. Germano, S. Marzano, Torrazza Coste, Vettigni, Consignore di Altessano, Boione, Borriana, Borzone, Castellengo, Gattieras, Magnano, Pralormo, Reano, Ruffia, Strambinello, Tronzano, Valdengo in succession to her father, Carlo Emanuele Dal Pozzo della Cisterna, Senator of the Kingdom of Sardinia 1848, who lived (1789-1864). Her mother was Countess Louise Caroline de Mérode-Westerloo (1819-68). Her sister Giuseppa lived (1851-64). 
She was married to Prince Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta, King of Spain (1870-73), who lived (1845-90). Maria Carlotta lived (1847-76).

1865-1904 4th Principessa di Castacicala Donna Maria Giustina Ruffo
Also 3rd Duchessa di Calvello. Married twice. She lived (1839-1906)

1865.... Principessa of Motta San Giovanni, Maria Antonia Ruffo di Bagnara e Baranello, principessa di Sant'Antimo, Duchessa di Bagnara e di Baranello 
The issue of an ancient Norman family and holder of numerous feudal Seignorities in Sicily, she was daughter of Prince Francesco (1779-1865) and Nicoletta Filangieri dei principi di Cutò, and married to  Cesare Coppola, Conte di Filangieri. She was (b. 1800)

Until 1870 Princess Carolina Ruffo della Leonessa Sepino, Duchess of San Martino
Married to Giovanni, Prince of Monteroduni, bringing titles and estates and the name della Leonessa. (1814-70). 

1875-1954 Principessa di Scilla Donna Eleonora Ruffo di Calabria
Also Duchessa di San Martino, Valle Caudina, di Santa Cristina etc. She was married to Don Raffaele Marchese Torrigani, no children, and lived (1864-1954)

1876-88 Duchess Maria di Galliera 
A philantrophist, she was appointed Duchess after the death of her hsuband, Marchese Don Raffaele de Ferrari, Duca di Galliera, 1st Principe di Lucedio, (1803-76). Her father was Antonio, 9th Marchese di Groppoli, Count of the French Empire in 1811, French Councillor of State, Prefect of Montenotte, Minister-Plenipotary of the King of Sardegna to Toscana 1816-18, Councillor of State in Sardegna in 1831, Minister to France 1836-48 and Sardignian Senator 1848, who lived  (1786-1863), and her mother was Artemisia Negrone  (1787-1865). Maria di Galliera lived (1811-88).

1886-1901 3rd Principessa di Civitella-Ceri Donna Anna Maria Torlonia
In 1875 she had been granted the titles of Principessa del Fucino, Duchessa di Ceri, Marchessa di Romavecchia after her father seeded them to her. Her husband, Don Guilio Borghese (1847-1914) had obtained royal permission to use her titles.

1889-1955 Donna Maria Colonna Barberini, 8th Princess of Palestrina, Lord of Monte Castel San Pietro, Capranica Prenestina, Great of Spain and Nobile Romano Coscritto
Daughter of Don Enrico and Teresa Orsini, she married Don Luigi Barberini of the Marquesses Sacchetti. She lived (1872-1955)

1892-1955 8th Principessa di Palestrina Donna Maria Barberini-Colona
Also Signora di Castel San Pietro, di Capravica e San Vittorino. Married to Don Luigi dei Marchesi Sacchetti, Principi di Sacchetti. They were succeeded by two sons and then by a grandson (son of a fourth son). She lived (1872-1955)

1893-1924 Duxessa Romana de Ferrari Anna Maria Pia
Married to Don S. Principi Borghese, 10th Princpipi di Sulmona. She had no children, drowned in the Garda Lake and lived (1874-1924)

1898-1967 Donna Giulia Acquaviva D'Aragona, 25° Duchessa di Atri, 16° Duchessa di Nardò, Duchessa di Nochi di Casalaspro e di Pietragalla, di Allessando, Principessa di Cassano, 41° Contessa di Conversano, Contessa di San Flaviano e Contessa di Castellanza dal 1898 (
1911-67 Duchessa di Pietragalla e Casalaspro
1925-67 12° Duchessa di Noci
1932-67 Duchessa di Alessano
She married Don Giustiniano Perrelli
-Tomacelli-Filomarino 10° Principe di Boiano, 8° Duca di Monasterace etc., and lived (1887-1967).

1904-40 7th Principessa di Santo Mavro Donna Giulia Saluzzo
The title was transferred to her by a royal decree in 1934, but she did not inherit her father's title of Duke di Corrigliano. She was married to Guglielmo, Principe e Marchese Romanizzi Carducci.

Until 1911 Donna Paolina Francesca Pignatelli y Americh- Pinelli-Ravaschieri Squarciafico, XXI Countess of Copertino , XI Marquise of Galatone , IX Duchess of Acerenza , VII Princess of Belmonte .Grandee of Spain  on the Acerenza fief, Princess of Castelvetrano, Marsiconuovo, Minervino, Moliterno, Monasterace , Montecorvino, Monteroduni, Muro Leccese, Noja, Racale, Supino, Valle and Maida, Duchess of Acerenza, Alliste, Bellosguardo, Bisaccia, Caivano, Castoria, Corigliano d’Otranto, Girifalco, Montecalvo, Monteleone, Rocca Mondolfa, San Demetrio, San Marco, San Martino, San Mauro, Terranova and Tolve, Marchioness af Argensola , Avola , Caronia , Casalnuovo, Cerchiara, Collelongo, Colletorto, Favara, Galatone, Lauro, Moio, Padula, Paglieta, Sambuca, San Giovanni, San Vincenzo, Spinazzola, Tertiveri, Trentola, Tufara, Vaglios, Valle Oaxaca (with the Signorie in Mexico of Caro, Cotaxilla, Coyocan, Cuernavaca, Etla, Nico, Sancta Maria, Sant’Anna, Tambaya, Tapulia and Tuxilla),  Countess of Acerra, Borghetto, Borrello, Cerinola, Cerignola, Copertino, Egmont, Fuentes, Melissa, Mesagne, Montavano, Monteleone, Priego, San Giovanni Lappione, Sant’ Angelo de’ Lombardi, San Valentino, Tuehgl and Vaglio, Holder of the Fiefs of Mendolara, Bellizzi, Briatico, Caiazzo, Castellamare sul Golfo, Carpineto, Ferolito, Ferrandina, Gallo, Guastalla, Leverano, Maddaloni, Melfi, Novi, Nusco, Orta, Palma, Pisciotta, Regina, Sant’Angelo, Sant’Eufemia, Scafati, Summonte, Taurasi, Torritto, Tufara, Trecase and Veglie, etc. 
She was daughter of Gennaro (1777-1829), she inherited all fiefs ,estates and titles of brothers; she married in 1839 Angelo V Granito, IV Marquis of Castellabate and Baron of Rocca Cilento, Gentiluomo di Cámara of H.M. the King of the Two Sicilies and  Sovraintendente Generale of the Royal Archives. She lived (1824-1911) 

From 1918 Principessa di Camporeale Donna Maria Anna Beccadelli di Bologna, Duchessa di Adragna, Marchesa d’Altavilla, Marchesa della Sambuca, Baronessa di San Giacomo li Comici, Signora di Macellaro, Pietralunga Sparacia, Dammusi e Mortilli, Signora del diritto di ½ grano sulle tonnare di Solanto, San Niccolò di Pontorno e Arenella, Signora della Gabella del biscotto, del canape, del pepe e dei salumi di Messina e Grande di Spagna di prima classe
(titoli riconosciuti con Regio Diploma del 15-4-1920).
Succeeded her father, Don Paolo, and married to Don Filiberto Sallier de La Tour Principe di Castelcicala
. She (b. 1895-?)

Until 1932 Donna Maria Zunica 5° Principessa di Cassano, 5° Duchessa di Alessano
Daughter of Don Antonio Duca della Castellina and Donna Luisa Riario Sforza 4° Principessa di Cassano e 4° Duchessa di Alessano, 1886 she married Don Francesco 6° Duca di Nardò, Duca di Casalaspro e Pietragalli (1851-94) and she lived (1860-1932)

From 1956 Princess ... de Odinout di Reggio
Her family was granted a Duché grand fief de l'Empire by Napoleon I in 1813. It was attached to a territorial basis but not reigning.

1958-2000 8th Princpessa del Sacro Romano Imperato di Torriga Donna Orietta Doria-Pamphilj-Landi, 4th Principessa di Melfi, 8th Principessa di San Martino al Cimino e di Valomontone, San Martino , Valditarom and Santo Stefano d'Aveto, 8th Duchessa di Auigliano e di Montelancio, Marchessa di Montecalvella, di Croce, di Val Trebbia e di Ottone, di Carbagna, di Grondona, di Vargo, di Carrega, di Cremonte, di Cabella e di Fontanarossa etc., Principessa Doria-Pamphilj-Landi
She succeded her father Don Filippo II Andrea as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Principessa , Grande de Espana of 1st Class, etc. She was married to Frank George Pogson (1923-98) and lived (1922-2000).

Until 2001 Donna Anna Perrelli Tomacelli Filomarino 6th Principessa di Cassano
She succeeded her mother, married Don Camillo Imperiali dei Principi di Francavilla, and lived (1908-2001)


Last update 30.04.14