Mexico Substates

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Heads of State of Mexico/ Estados Unidos Mexicanos
(Female suffrage 1923 or 1947 and 1953 right to stand for elections) Independent 1821, an Empire 1862-67 and then a republic

Also see Mexico Ministers


618-34 Politically Influential Queen Mother Lady Batz' Ek'
At the age of 18, she arrived in the centre of Oxwitza in 584, and married king Knot Ajaw of the Mayan kingdom of Caracol, who had already been in power for 31 years. Her prominence in the sources suggests that she took a very prominent and politically influential role during the reign of her son K'an II (618-58) until her own death. 

City State of Ecatepec

Around 1500 Queen Tlapalizquixochtzin
The daughter of Prince Matlaccoatzin who was son of King Chimalpilli I, she married Emperor Moctezuma II
Tenochtitlan (circa 1466-1520).
Their daughter, Doña Francisca de Moctezuma, married Don Diego de Alvarado Huanitzin
Ruler of Ecatepec and Tenochtitlan, who was son of her sister, Tlacuilolxochtzin and his brother, Tezozomoctli Acolnahuacatl

Palenque (a Mayan Empire at Palenque in the Yucatan)

583-605 Princess Kanal Ikal
612-15 Ruler Zac-Kuk of B'aakal or Palenque ( Mayan Empire at Palenque in the Yucatan)
Princess Zac-Kuk was the great-granddaughter of Kanal-Ikal and succeeded father, Aj Ne' ohe. Zak means white and Kuk means quetzal. ak Kuk was a powerful woman. She manipulated facts to secure her son, Pakal's divine right to rule, thus restoring her family's reign following a devastating defeat from a neighboring city. She resigned in his favour, and died in 640.

626-72 Princess Ahpo-Hel
Widow of Zac-Kuk’s son.

677 Snake Lady
She arrived on the very day of one of the greatest victories for the Kan Kingdom, when Calakmul's major rival for domination of the Maya lowlands, Tikal, was defeated in battle. This Snake Princess is said to have been the wife of the local ruler, K'inich Yook (ruled 667-circa 682), who in turn is said to have been the yajaw, or "vassal of," Yukno'm Ch'e'n II (636-686), the greatest king of Calakmul. The position of Snake Lady was both significant and politically influential.

721 Snake Lady Ti'
She came to Sak Nikte' in 721 and is described as the yatan, or "wife of," Yuknoom Took' K'awiil, the last great ruler of Calakmul (ruled circa 702-circa 731). The date of her arrival is most interesting as it falls 26 years after a major victory by Tikal over Calakmul, in which the power of the Snake Kingdom was overthrown and its influence in the Petén was seriously curtailed. In addition, this arrival occurred only a dozen years before another major clash between Tikal and Calakmul, in which the former again appears to have successful. This information, in combination with the iconography of the tablet, suggests that Lady Ti's arrival served to reestablish, after a lengthy absence, the presence of Calakmul in the Petén. In this light, we can begin to appreciate the pairing of the Creation and War palanquins, and the role of the Snake Queens at Sak Nikte'.

Piedras Begras

687 Politically Influential Queen Lady K'atun Ajaw
The sources indicate that she, as wife of King K'inich Yo'nal Akh II yielded considerable political power during his reign. She was born as Princess of Amana.

Quauhtitlan (Aztech State)

Circa 866-76
Queen Xiuhtlacuilolxochitzin

Circa 1024-circa 1035 Queen Iztacxilotzin

Circa 1368-79 Queen Ehuatl-Ycetzin


Until 1550 Lady Princesa Isabel Xipaguazin Moctezuma
he was daughter of  Moctezuma II (1466-1520), who was the last emperor of the Aztecs (1502-20), who ruled the grand city of Tenochtitlán. She married two conquistadors, Alonso de Grado and Pedro Gallego de Andrada. King Carlos I of Spain named her Holder for perpetunity of the Lordship of Tacuba (propietaria "a perpetuidad" del señorío de Tacuba) - which largely corresponds with the historic center of the City of México. (d. 1550)


1349-83 Queen Ilancuetil
Succeeded by her husband, Acamapichtli, the 3rd. king of Tecnochtitlan

1466-72 Female King Atotoztli  of Tenochtitlán (Mexico)
Some sources indicate that she might have acted as tlatoani (King) of the kingdom during a six-year gap between the reigns of Motecuhzoma I and Axayacatl. This possibility is raised by the document 'Los Anales de Tula'. Another document, the 'Relación de la genealogía'  goes even further, claiming that this Atotoztli actually ruled for more than thirty years. The reason so little is known about her reign because the official Aztec scribes—almost all of whom were men—neglected to mention the female tlatoani since female rulers were so uncommon. Thus, rather than mentioning her, most scribes filled this gap between male kings either by extending the reign of Motecuhzoma I beyond his death, or by pushing back the beginning of Axayacatl’s reign to a date before his actual inauguration. Atotoztli or Huitzilxochtzin was daughter of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma I and Chichimecacihuatzin, the daughter of Cuauhtototzin, the ruler of Cuauhnahuac. She married Tezozomoc, son of the previous emperor Itzcoatl, and gave birth to three sons who would later become emperors themselves: Axayacatl, Tizoc, and Ahuitzotl.

1666 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan, the II Condesa de Moctezuma
This person might also be a man

1696-1701 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of  Tecnochtitlan Doña Maria Geronima Tesifon de Moctezuma y Jofre de Loaysa , III. Condesa de Moctezuma
The daughter of Diego Luis de Moctezuma, 2. Conde de Moctezuma and Luisa Joffre de Loaysa Carrillo, she was married to Don Jose Sarmiento Valladares, Viceroy of Mexico
(1697-1701) and after her death, King Carlos II gave him the right to use the title of Conde de Moctezuma de Tultengo. Succeeded by daughter.

1701-circa 17 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Fausta Domenga Sarmiento de Vallardares y Moctezuma, IV Condesa de Moctezuma
Succeeded by her sister - or half cousin.

Circa 1717-34 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Melchora Juana Sarmiento Moctezuma, V Condesa de Moctezuma

1734-35 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Teresa Nieto de Silva y Moctezuma, VI Condessa de Moctezuma de Tultengo
She was a decendant of a sister of the 2nd Conde/Condesa. Grandesa de Epaña and III. Marquesa de Tenebron, Vizcondesa de Ilucán. Married to Don Gaspar Antonio de Oca Sarmiento. She lived (1669-1701)

1779-99 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of  Tecnochtitlan Doña Clara de Oca y Mendoza, IX Condesa de Moctezuma
Also VI Marquesa de Tenebron. Succeeded brother and died unmarried. Succeeded by relative. The family lived in Spain for many years.


Before 1519 Queen Regnant Azcasuch of Tepetlaoxtoc
Also known as  or Azcaxóchitl, she was was Cihuatlatoani (queen) of the pre-Colombian Acolhua altepetl of Tepetlaoztoc in the Valley of Mexico, in succession to her husband, Cocopin, and she was succeeded by her grandson, Diego Tlilpotonqui, who ruled when the Spanish arrived in 1519. She was daughter of daughter of King Nezahualcoyotl of Texoco, (1431-1472)


13?? Queen Tlaxco Cihuapilli


1550-82 Adelantada Catalina Montejo
She inherited the title jointly with her husband, Alonso Maldonado. After his death she was in charge of the area alone.



Last update 24.03.08