Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Greece Heads of State Greece was ruled from Rome 146 BCE to CE 395 when it became part of the Eastern Empire (Byzantine Empire) (Byzantine and Constantinople, now Istanbul)
See also Greek Substates and Turkey Heads
The Augustae - wife or sister of the emperor - acted as the Deputy of the Emperor when he was in some way incapacitated. They could also exercise a degree of power trough their access to the emperor. All powers were placed in the hands of the emperor, and therefore also male officials acted on the command of the emperor. The difference was that the deputy's job did not come into being until the principal is absent.
Before 440-429 Politically Influential Aspasia of Milos in Athens (Greece)
323-16 Regent Dowager Queen Olympias of Macedonia
She was Queen of Epirus in her own right and ruled on the throne of Macedon and even after Philips' death nearly won all the battles she led against successors. She acted as regent for Philip during his military campaigns, and after his death, with her daughter Cleopatra, she ruled Epirus. Murdered during a rebellion.
BCE 300s Queen Regnant Tania of Dardania (Macedonia/Greece)
According to Polyaenus, she was a queen of ancient Dardania. She took the throne after her husband's death, and she personally went into battle, riding on a chariot. She was an excellent general who was never was defeated. She had one daughter who married one of her trusted soldiers. A year after the wedding had taken place her son-in-law assassinated her as she slept.
For Philippos IV
245 Dowager Tyran Nikaia of Korinthos
350 Augusta Constantina of East Roman Empire
She proclaimed Vetranio as Cćsar during a riot - acting in her own right with the authority of the daughter of the Emperor with the title of Augusta in the Byzantine or East Roman Empire.
378 De-facto Regent Dowager Empress Domnica of The Byzantine Empire
She held Constantinople after the death of her husband, Valens, and defended the city against the attacks of the Goths, before the arrival of the successor, Theodosios.
400-04 De-facto Ruler Empress Eudoxia of The Byzantine Empire
She was a significant figure in the government because she had the ear of her husband Emperor Arcadius of the East Roman Empire until her own death in 404. She was strong and strident, dominating her weak and passive husband.
414-55 De-facto Ruler Augusta Pulchera of The Byzantine Empire
At the age of 15 Princess Aelia Pulcheria was crowned Augusta and assumed a dominant role in guiding the affairs of state. In 420/22 she may have organized the Byzantine campaign against Persia, she replaced the emperor as director of power, but the ultimate power resided with her brother. In the mid-420s she engaged in a power struggle with her sister-in-law, Eudokia, and Pulchera was forced into semi-retirement. She established herself as a holy virgin dedicated to God, and this gave her access into the altar to receive the communion with priests and deacons, something normally barred to women. When her brother died in 450 she took control of the government of the Eastern Empire, and married Marcian, Army Chief of Staff, and named him co-Emperor. She spoke Greek and Latin and had a deep interest in medicine and natural science lived (399-453).
421-442/443 Politically influential Empress Athenais-Eudokia of The Byzantine Empire
She was the daughter of pagan philosopher Leoncius. Since 421 she was married to emperor Theodosius II. In 423 her husband gave her title of Augusta. She fought for power and influence over emperor with her sister Pulcheria. She helped by the foundation of university in Constantinople. She was very educated. 442/443-460 in exile in Jerusalem. She died in 460.
474-84 Politically Influential Empress Veria of The Western Roman Empire and
Her husband, Leo I was succeeded by their grandson Leo II (seven years old), who appointed his father Zeno as Co-Emperor with her support, but after Leo's death in November 474 she fought for power with Zeno. In January 475 he was overthrown by her and her allies. She wanted to make her brother Bazyliskos and Patrikios Emperors. She planned to marry Patrikios. She personally crowned her brother, but he killed Patrikios, and she again entered into an alliance with Zeno, who regained the throne in 476. Afterwards Veria became one of the most influential and powerful persons on the court and later fought for power with Illus. In 4777-78 she organized two unsuccessfully coup d'etats against Illus, who took her hostage and in 481 her daughter, Empress Ariane, organized an unsuccessful coup d'etat against Illus to free her. In 481 emperor forced Illus to leave for Constantinople, where he announced a patrician Leoncius as the real emperor. Veria joined to him and at 19th July 484 she personally crowned Leoncius. She published a document for the administrators of provinces and for the citizens of Antiochiaia, where she wrote, that the imperial power belonged to her. She had, after her husband's death, chosen Zeno as Emperor, but she had not know, that Zeno was so greedy, and therefore she now wanted to a pious and just Christian as Emperor, who would repair the state and bring peace. This is seen as an example of the fact that public and political personal power could pass down trough the female line in the The Byzantine Empire. Augustas could legitimize the rule of their husband's or others. But all power was vested in the Emperor, and everybody else - including officials at court - depended on his will. One of her three daughters was Empress Ariane, wife of Emperor Zeno. She died in 484.
478-79 Rebellion Leader Leontia of the Byzantine Empire
She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Leo I and Empress Aelia Verina. Her older sister was Empress Ariadne. Leontia was first married to Patricius, a son of Aspar. Their marriage was probably annulled when Aspar and another of his sons, Ardabur, were assassinated in 471. Leontia then married Marcian, a son of Anthemius and Marcia Euphemia. The couple led a failed revolt against Zeno in 478-479. They were exiled to Isauria following their defeat.
491 Regent Dowager Empress Aelia Ariadane of Byzantine
The daughter of Leo I (447-74). She was married to Tarasicodissa who became Emperor Zeno, and after his death in 491 the Senate offically requested her to choose another candidate to rule and she married Anastasios I, who became emperor.
518-65 Co-Ruler Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire
Before becoming Empress, Theodora was an actress. During this time in history the theatre was looked down upon and in fact banned by the church. She later became a devote Christian and married Emperor Justinian, who viewed her as an equal and accepted her many ideas. She was influential in changing the administrative and legislative sectors. She was an advocate of women’s rights. The Empress, along with her husband changed laws on guardianship to include women, and created a law that allowed women to own property. The two also rebuilt cities that were ruined during earthquakes, and built the church Hagia Sophia. In 532, mobs attempted to overthrow Justinian, causing the Emperor the desire to flee his city. But it was his wife who convinced him to stay.
565-572 and 574-578 Co-ruler Empress Sophia of The Byzantine Empire
572-574 Sole Regent
She was the niece of Empress Theodora. Since before 565 to 578 she was married to emperor (in 565-578) Iustinus II, and sole regent during her husband's mental illness. She nominated his two successors without marrying either. She continued exercise a high degree of influence on the government and is believed to have played a major role in various financial measures and took an active part in foreign politics, mainly in her dealings with Persia, not the least in 574.
641 Regent Dowager Empress Martina of The Byzantine Empire
After the death of her husband, Herakleios, she was first co-ruler with stepson, Constantinos III, whom she was accused of poisoning. She took power but was deposed together with son Heraklonas, who was still a minor. They were both mutilated and sent into exile.
642-49 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Gregorina of The Byzantine Empire
She was the widow of Herakleios-Constantinos and her son, Constans, was chosen as Emperor after Martina and Heraklonas, and though the sources does not mention the members of the Regency Council it can be assumed that she was one of the members. She was a niece of Emperor Herakleios II.
Circa 669-74 Regent Empress Aelia Sofia of The Byzantine Empire
For her insane husband Justinos II (58-95 and 705-11), who was killed.
780-90 Regent Dowager Empress Irene of The Byzantine Empire
792 Joint Ruler
797-802 Reigning Empress
She dominated her husband Emperor Leo IV (775-780), and after his death she became regent for son, Constantine VI. Irene generally undermined Constantine's authority when he tried to push her aside, she deposed him in 797 - he was seized, flogged and blinded. Irene began her reign as the first Byzantine Empress, and did not recognize Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in 800. After the death of his wife, Liutgard, the same year, Charlemagne sought her hand in marriage - but nothing came out of this proposal. Soon revolts against Irene rule broke out and she was deposed by the leading Patricians. Irene was then exiled to island of Lesbos, where she supported herself by spinning. Irene died the following year and her former finance minister succeeded as Emperor Nicephorus I. She lived (752-803).
811 Regent Empress Theopano (26.07-2.10)
A relative of Empress Irene, she had married Staurakios in 807. He was was paralyzed by a sword wound near his neck, and was saved by the imperial guard which retreated from the battlefield during his father's expedition against Krum of Bulgaria in 811. As his father had been killed in the same battle, and he was hastily crowned at Adrianople, and named her as regent, but when he tried to name her as his designated successor, a coup d'etat with the participation of the Patriarch Nikephoros forced him to abdicate and against her protests to name his brother-in-law, Michael Rangabe as the new emperor. He retired to a convent and died a few months later.
811-13 Politically Influential Empress Prokopia of The Byzantine Empire
Her husband, Michael I Rhangabe became emperor and she is said to have been a dominant force at court until his abdication.
829-30 Member of Regency
Council Dowager Empress Euphrosyne of The Byzantine Empire
She was daughter of Emperor Constantinos VI who divorced her mother, Maria of Amnia (circa 770-circa 830) and send both of them to a monestary, where they stayed until 820 when Michael II of Amorion ursurped the throne and married Euphrosyne in order to legitimize his reign. After his death, she was probably member of the regency council for his son, Theophilos, though the sources are not clear about this. After she helped select his wife, Theodora, she retired to a convent, though she did not stay totally out of politics. She (circa 790-after 840).
842-56 Regent Dowager Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire
The widow of Theophilos (829-42) She was head of the regency council which ruled for her son Michael III (838-42-67).
Co-Regent Princess Tekla
of The Byzantine Empire
The sister of Michael III, she was member of the regency council and in theory co-regent with Theodora
914-919 Regent Dowager Empress Zoë Karbonopsina of Byzantine
She was the fourth wife of Leon IV, who died 912. After his death the guardian of her son, Constantinos VII (b. 905) sent her to a convent. She later managed to become regent for son, but was deposed in 919.
Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of Byzantine
Very powerful during the reign of her husband, Emperor Romanos II (959-63) and regent for sons Basileios II and Constantinos VIII. Married to the Fieldmarshal Nikephoros Phokas, who was emperor 963-69, he was deposed by Jean Tzimikskes who married Theodora, daughter of Theophano.
1028-41 Joint Reigning Empress Zoë Porphyrogenita of Byzantine
1042-50 Joint Reigning Empress
In 1028 she married 60 year old Romanus III Argyropolus and made him co-emperor but poisoned him in 1034 and married the epileptic weakling Michael IV Paphiagonian. 1042 she reigned jointly with her older sister Theodora, until she married Constantine IX Monomachus, who became co-emperor. Zoë lived (986-1050)
1042 Joint Reigning Empress Theodora Porphyrogenita of Byzantine
1050-55 Joint Reigning
1055-56 Ruled alone
Married to Constantinos IX Monomachos in 1042 at the age of 64. He was co-emperor with Theodora and her sister until his death in 1055. She lived (978-1056)
1067 Reigning Dowager Empress Eudoxia Makrembolitissa of The Byzantine Empire
1068 and 1071 Regent
Regent for Michael VIII Dukas and Konstantinos after the death of her husband Constantine X Dukas. In 1068 married to Romanos IV Diogenes, who took title of emperor. In 1071 co-ruler with son, Michael, but was deposed and ended her life in a convent.
1078-87 Politically Influential Dowager Empress
After her first husband, emperor Michael VII Ducas, was ousted by a Palace Coup in 1078, she agreed to marry the new Emperor, Nicephorus III Botaniates, who in his turn would name her son, Constantin Ducas as heir. When he broke his promise, and she became involved in a plot organized by her lover, general Alexius Comnenus, who became emperor in 1081 and proclaimed her son as heir to the throne. The situation changed after John II Comnenus was born in 1087, who became the new heir and died in 1096. She ended her life in a convent. The daughter of king Bagrat IV (1027–72) of Georgia, she was born as Martha, and frequently known as Maria of Alania in apparent confusion with her mother Borena of Alania, and lived (circa 1050-after 1103)
1081-82 and 1094-95 Regent Anna Dalassena of the Byzantine Empire
Regent during the absence of her son, Alexius I Comnenus, who had seized the throne and founded the Comnenian dynasty, ruling (1081-1118), at the time of war against invading Italian Normans headed by Robert Guiscard. She was the widow of Jean Comnenus, the brother of Isaac I, who had ruled (1057-59).
1180-82 (†) Regent Dowager Empress Maria de Antiochia of Constantinople
She was the daughter of Constance of Antiochia (d.1162) and Raymond de Poirtiers, and acted as regent for her son Alexius II (1180-82). It was during this time that Maria took a lover, her advisor Alexius Comnenus. But Maria's regency was opposed by her stepdaughter Maria Komnena (daughter of Manuel by a former wife) and her husband Rainer de Monferrato. Andronicus Comnenus was sent for by popular acclaim and was crowned co-Emperor. He eventually assumed total control of Constantinople. Maria was condemned to be strangled, her son forced to sign the warrant by new Emperor Andronicus. Her son was murdered two months later.
1180-82 Oppostion Leader Maria Komnene of the
Known as the Porphyrogenita ("born in the Purple Chamber") she lead the oppostion against her step-mother, the Regent Maria of Antioch, together with her husband, the Caesar Renier of Montferrat, and she might have considered herself the rightful heir, as the elder child of Manuel. They gained the support of the Patriarch and used Hagia Sophia as a base of operations. Her Empress Marie's lover, Alexios, had the patriarch arrested, leading to open warfare on the streets of Constantinople. She invited back her father's cousin, Andronikos Komnenos, who had been exiled, and he provoked the citizens into a massacre of the Latin inhabitants, mostly Venetian and Genoese merchants. After gaining control of the city, he had both her and her husband poisened, Empress Maria arrested and imprisoned in the monastery of St. Diomedes or in a prison nearby. She lived (1150-82).
1110-17 Temporary Regent Empress Irene Doukaina
1118-19 Politically Influential
Her husband, Alexios I Komnenos was engaged in numerous fights against the Seljuks in 1110–1117, and she acted as regent when she remained behind in Constantinople, she acted as regent, together with her son-in-law, Nikephoros Bryennios. She wanted to have Nikephoros and her daughter, Anna as his heirs, over their own younger son John. She nursed Alexios on his deathbed on 1118, while at the same time still scheming to have Nikephoros and Anna succeed him, and conspired with Anna against John, but their plots were unsuccessful and they were both forced into exile at the monastery of Kecharitomene, which she had founded a few years previously. She lived there in peace, distributing food to the poor and educating young orphan girls. She lived (circa 1066–1123/33).
1118-19 Coup Participant Princess Anna Komnene
Together with her mother, Irene Doukaina, she plotted to place herelf and her husband, Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios on the throne instead of her brother, John. The plot was discovered, and she forfeited her property and imperial family status. By her brother's clemency she escaped with her life and was dispatched to a convent, where she engaged in studied ans became one of the first known female historians and wrote "The Alexiad" - about her father's reign. She was mother of 4 children, and lived (1083-1153).
1195-96 and 1197-1203 De facto Ruler Empress
Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina of the Byzantine Empire
Also know as Kamatera. She married the later Emperor Alexios III Angelos, who deposed her brother, Isaac II Angelos assisted by her, who had organized a party of aristocratic supporters. She took control of the palace and quelled the opposition herself, securing the accession of her husband to the throne by wholesale bribery. She was a dominating woman with a talent for politics, and she virtually ruled the Empire in the name of Alexios III, who was concerned primarily with pleasure and idle pursuits. She issued commands herself and even altered Alexios' decrees when it suited her. They were criticized for their love of finery and the enrichment of their relatives at state expense. Her own brother, Basil Kamateros, and her son-in-law, Andronikos Kontostephanos, accused her of adultery with one of her ministers, Vatatzes. Her husband believed the allegations and had Vatatzes executed, and she was stripped of her imperial robes and banished to a convent at Nematarea in October 1196. However, her relatives convinced Alexios to reinstate her, and she was recalled six months later in spring 1197. In 1203, faced with the Fourth Crusade and the return of his nephew, Alexios IV Angelos, her husband fled Constantinople with a magnificent treasure and some female relatives, including his daughter Eirene. She was left behind and was immediately imprisoned by the new regime. Alexios IV was soon strangled by Alexios Doukas Mourtzouphlos, the lover of her daughter Eudokia, who then proclaimed himself emperor as Alexios V. In April 1204 she fled the city along with her daughter and Alexios V, and they made their way to Mosynoupolis, where her husband had taken refuge. He had Alexios V blinded and abandoned to the crusaders, who had him executed. Together with her husband she fled across Greece to Thessalonica and Corinth, but they were finally captured by Boniface of Montferrat and imprisoned. In 1209 or 1210 they were ransomed by their cousin Michael I of Epirus, and she spent the remainder of her life in Arta. Mother of 3 children, she lived (ca.1155-1211).
1216-19 Empress Regnant Yolanda of Flanders of Constantinople
Also Countess of Flanders. She was married to Pierre de Courtenay who was taken prisoner on the way to assume to assume the imperial crown and died in captivity. He was succeeded by son Robert de Courtenay (1216-28)
1228-(37) Regent Dowager Empress Maria de
Courtenay of Constantinople
Regent for Baudouin II de Courtenay, who succeeded his brother, Robert. She reigned together with co-regents.
1243-62 Titular Queen Helene of Thessalonica
Daughter of Boniface II of Monferrato and married to Gugliermo delle Carceritercier de Negropont.
1277-84 Opposition Leader Eirene Komnene Palaiologina
She opposed to the union of the Orthodox and Roman churches organised by her brother, Emperor Mikhael VIII, and was arrested on his orders in 1277. She then became the focus of organised opposition from the Bulgarian court of her daughter Maria. When her husband, Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos died, she had become a nun as Eulogia. The daughter of Megas Domestikos Andronikos Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos and his wife Theodora Palaiologina, she lived (1218-84).
1277-1300 Opposition Leader Theodora Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzenen
Like her mother, Eirene Komnene Palaiologina, shShe was imprisoned in 1277 for opposing Emperor Mikhael VIII's policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches. She was accused of "magical machinations against the emperor's health" and, according to Pachymeres, was tested by being put into a bag with some cats. After the accession of Emperor Andronikos II she was released. She restored the church of St Andrew of Crete at Krisis in Constantinople and lived in the convent there for the rest of her life, during which she amassed a library and acquired a reputation for learning. She wrote hagiographies of the 9th century Theophanes the Confessor and his brother Theodore. She made an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate with Alexios Philanthropenos who in 1295 rebelled in Asia Minor and was proclaimed emperor. Widow of Georgios Mouzalon and Ioannes Raul Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas. Her father was She was the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos, and she lived (1240-1300).
1283-1308 Tutular Empress Catherina I de Courtenay of Constantinople
Also Princess Regnant of Achaia (Albaina). Daughter of Philipp the son of Emperor Boudewijn, who was deposed 1261 and married to Charles de Valois of France
1284-85 Empress Regnant Theodora Comnenus of
Trabzon is a city and coastal region in northeastern Turkey, by the Black Sea; west-southwest of Georgia. At the Sack of Byzantium in 1204, and subsequent establishment of the Latin Empire by marauding Crusaders, a few members of the Imperial family escaped and established this state. Owing to a combination of the typical Byzantine policy of extensive marriage alliances together with notable difficulty of access by potential invaders, Trapezoid was generally ignored or bypassed by the great conquerors of the era; Seljuqs and Mongols mainly. Theodora was daughter of Manuel I (1238-63) and succeeded three brothers, before she was deposed.
1284 Titular Queen Irene Palailologina de Monferrato of Thessalonica
Her father, the Margrave of Monferrato in Italy gave up the title of titular king when she was married to Emperor Andrinikos II.
1284-1316 Titular Queen Margherita of Thessalonica
1306-16 Titular Margravine of Monferrato
She was . Her father transferred his claims to the titular throne when she married Andrikos II of The Byzantine Empire. Her sister, Empress Jolanta of Constantinople was Margravine as Violante Aleramo 1305-06 (d. 1316). and her husband, emperor Teodoro I of Constantinople was margrave until 1238.
1303-17 De facto Reigning Empress Violante Aleramo of Thessalonica
1305-06 Sovereign Margravine of Monferrato (Italy)
She married Emperor Andronikos II Palailogos, later Emperor of Constantinople, as his second wife in 1284 and became known as Yolanda, and was given Thessalonica as her dowry. She was in disupte with her husband over the future of their sons, as his sons by the first marriage were named as heirs. She wanted to have the Empire carved out in seperate principalities for each of the thre sons. They grew further apart when her husband married their five year old daughter to King Simonis Milutin of Serbia who were in his 50s and forced their oldest son to marry the daughter of his closest advisor even though she was of low nobility. In 1303 she packed her backs and took up residence in Thessalonica, which considered her own property. 1309 an attempt of reconciliation failed and she died in her territory in 1317. 1305 she had inherited Monferrato from her brother and the folowing year she passed the title to her second son, Theodore, who spend the rest of his life in Italy. She was mother of seven chldren.
Titular Empress Catherina II de Valois of Constantinople
Daughter of Chatherine de Courtenay. Married to Philipp de Tarent in 1313. Her two sons, Robert d'Anoju (1315-64) and Philippe II de Tarente (1329-74) succeeded her as Titular Emperors.
1320-54 Politically Influential
Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene of the Byzantine Empire
1348 In charge of the Administration and Defence of Constantinople
1318 she married Jean Cantacuzene, Lord of Kalliopolis in Thrace. In 1320 he lfe her behind in the city of Didymoteichou while he took part in Andronikos III Palaiologos's rebellion against his grandfather, Andronikos II. She held the ford throuhout the whole civil war wich lasted until 1238, when Andronikos II abdicated. Also in charge of the defence of the city during the civil war against Anna of Savoia over the regency over Anna's infant son from 1341-43. Jean was problaimed Emperor and crowned in 1346 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had taken side against Anna and the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the following year the new patriarch crowned Jean and Eirene. 1348 she was left in charge of Constantinople while her husband went on campagn against the Bulgarians. Six years later he abdicated and they both joined a convent. She was granddaughter of Tsar Jean II Asen of Bulgaria and (d. 1361/79).
1340-41 Empress Regnant Eirene of Trapezond
In 1204 Constantinople had been captured by the Fourth Crusade and the Latin emperors took over. The Byzantine withdrew to Nicća in Anatolia, and rival claimants established holdings in Trapezoid and Epirus, so at one point there were four claimants to the Byzantine Throne. Empress Eirene’s husband, Basil Comnenus, belonged to the Trabezond-branch and she succeeded him. Also see Turkish substates.
1340-47 Regent Dowager Empress Anna de Savoie
1350-65/66 De Facto Ruler of Thessalonica (Greece)
She was widow of Andronikos III (1296-1328-41) and regent for son Jean V (1332-41—47-91) jointly with the Patriarch of the Orthodox war. A civil war followed with the pretender Jean VI Kantakuzenos (1347-54) who became emperor in 1347 when her son was deposed. She lived in Constantinople until 1350 when she moved to Thessalonica which she ruled as her own portion of the empire until her death. She lived (1306-65/66).
1340-41 Empress Regnant Eirene Palailologina of Trebizond
She was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos II Palailogos and married Emperor Basileios II Komnenos of Trapezunt. They divorced in 1339, he died the following year and she succeeded him. The city is known as Trabzon today. (d. 1341).
1341-42 Empress Regnant Anna Anachutu of
She was daughter of Alexius II Comnenus who ruled (1297-1330) and succeeded sister-in-law. She was deposed and died the following year.
1448-49 Regent Dowager Empress Helena Dragaš of the Byzantine Empire
Left the convent where she had stayed since the death of her husband, Emperor, Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-91-1425), and asserted her right to act as regent until the eldest of her surviving sons arrived from Greece, after the death of her oldest son, John VIII Palailogos, since the younger of the surviving sons, Demetrios, had hurried to the capital to stake his claim over the older Constantine XI. She sent George Sphrantzes to the Sultan Murad to seek his approval and recognition of Constantine as the new Emperor, and commissioned two of her leading courtiers to go to Mistra to confirm the fact of his succession. On 6 January 1449 they proclaimed and invested Constantine, who died in 1453 as the last Byzantine Emperor. The daughter of Constantin Dragaš, Authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhesother of 9 sons and 1 or 2 daughters, and lived (circa 1372-1450).
1836-62 Politically Influential Queen Amalie zu
Apart from her important role in reviving the Greek traditional culture and creating a national costume and the development of agriculture, she was involved in politics during the reign of her husband King Otto (1815-67) as his Bavarian advisers became more enmeshed in political struggles with Greek political forces and became the target of harsh attacks. She also remained a Roman Catholic, in an almost universally Orthodox country, throughout her reign. In 1861 she survived an assassination attempt, but the following year they letf the country after an uprising and spend the rest of their life in exile in Bavaria. She was the daughter of Grandduke Paul of Oldenburg and Princess Adelheid zu Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, had no children and lived (1818-75).
1920 Regent Dowager Queen Olga Konstatinovna Romanova (25.10-21.12)
She was acting as regent until the return of her son Konstatinos I, who had been in exile since 1917. She lived (1851-1926)
2004-07 Deputy Head of State Dr. Anna Psarouda-Benaki
As President of the Vouli she is Second in the state hierarchy even though as only acts as Head of State if the President is abroad for more than 10 days or dies in office. 1989 she was Alternate Minister of Education and Religion, 1990-91 Alternate Minister of Culture, 1991-92 Minister of Culture and 1992-93 Minister of Justice and Vice-President of the Parliament 2000-04. (b. 1934-).
2015 Deputy Head of State Zoi Konstantopoulou
As President of the Vouli ton Ellinon, she was also Deputy Head of State. MP from 2009, Secretary of the Parliament 2012-15. (b. 1976-).
Last update 15.10.15