Women in power 1400-1500

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


Circa 1400-? Queen Regnant Kalaimanuia of Oahu (Hawai'i)

12th Alii Aimoku in succession to her mother, Kukaniloko who ruled from 1375, and married to Lupe Kapukeahomakalii. Later she gave her position to her daughter, Kekala, a warrior Chiefess.


Around 1400 Queen Regnant Kekala of Oahu (Hawai'i)

A warrior Chiefess, she was handed the position as Mo'iwahine or supreme female ruler by her mother, Queen Kalaimanuia.


1400-17 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth de Sponheim-Kreuznach of Vianden (Luxembourg)
1414-17 Countess of Sponheim-Kreutznach (Germany)

Daughter of Countess Maria von Vianden (ca 1337-1400) and Count Simon III von Sponheim-Kreuznach who was Count of Vianden by the right of his wife until his death in 1414. Her brother Walram von Sponheim died 1382 and her sister Maria von Sponheim circa 1414. Elisabeth first married Engelbert III von der Mark and Ruprecht Pipan, Count Palatine of the Rhine, had no children and lived (1365-1417).

Circa 1400/08-27 Sultana Seri Ratu Nihrasyiah Rawangsa Khadiyu of Pasai/Pase (Samudra Pasai Kesepulih) (Indonesia)

Succeeded her father, Sultan Zainal Abidin, after she had gained the respect of the whole community and the royal family, who agreed to hand over the power of the state to her.  

Yolande de Argon

Around 1400-42 Titular Queen Yolande de Aragón of Sicily, Napoli, Jerusalem, and Aragón (Italy)
1417 Regent Dowager Duchess of Anjou and Provence (France)
1424-27 Presiding over the Estates General of Anjou and Provence

Daughter of Juan I, king of Aragón, she was initially called Violenta. Her father was succeeded by Martin as king of Aragón. Her marriage to Louis II of Anjou in 1400, who spent much of his life fighting in Italy for his claim to the kingdom of Napoli. She was appointed guardian of her son-in-law the Dauphin Charles, who became Charles VII in 1422, but his title was still challenged by the English and their Burgundian allies. In this struggle, she manoeuvred to have the duke of Bretagne break from an alliance with the English, and was responsible for the Breton soldier, Arthur de Richemont, becoming the constable of France in 1425. Her early and strong support of Jeanne d'Arc, when others had reasonable doubts, suggests the Duchess' possible larger role in the orchestrating the Maid's appearance on the scene. Her younger daughter, Yolanda, was married to the heir of Bretagne, her youngest son, René, inherited Lorraine in 1431 and after her older son's Louis III's death, and three years later he also became duke of Anjou and heir of Sicily. She lived (1379-1442).

1400-34 Sovereign Duchess Marie d'Anjou of Auvergne (France)
1414-34 Regent of Bourbon
1416 Sovereign Duchess de Montpensier
Also known as Marie de Berry, she was daughter of Jean d'Anjou, Count de Poitiers, Duc de Berry, d'Auvergne and Jeanne d'Armagnac, and was married to Louis de Châtillon, Count de Dunois, Philippe d'Artois, Count d'Eu and finally to Jean I, Duc de Bourbon (1410-15-34), and regent during his imprisonment in England. He was succeeded by his son, Charles I (1401-34-56). The county of Auvergne had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d'Auvergne reigned the county 1424-37. Marie d'Anjou lived (1367-1434).


1400-03 Princess-Abbess Ursula I von Brasberg of Baindt (Germany)

As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1400-17 Countess-Abbess Bertrade von Schneuditz of Gernrode and Frose
1417-25 Princess-Abbess of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The first ruler of the territory to be granted the rank of Princess of The Empire in 1417.


1400-02 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Murach of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not certain who was chosen as her successor, but it is known that Margaretha I reigned until 1435.


Around 1400 Military Leader Maire O’Ciaragain of Ireland

Led Irish clans against the English and was known for her ferocity in battle.

14.. Rani Regnant Lakshimi Devi of Mithila (India)

Succeeded her husband, Siva Simh, who reigned around 1399. Mithila is an ancient cultural region of North India between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Ganges River. The Nepal border cuts across the top fringe of this region. The Gandak and Kosi Rivers are rough western and eastern boundaries of Mithila.


14.. Rani Regnant Visvasa Devi of Mithila (India)

Ascended the throne after the death of Padma Sima Chaulukyas. In the thirteenth century Mithila was invaded by Afghans, who deposed the Kshatriya ruler and placed a Maithil Brahman in control of land revenues over much of this region. This family soon began calling themselves kings, distributing land to other members of their caste, so that gradually land passed into the control of Maithil Brahmans. 


14... Queen Putri Kaumnu of Bandjermasin (Indonesia)

Ruler of the principality in southern Borneo.


14... Queen Daroh Nanti of Sangau (Indonesia)

Born as Princess of Majapahit and founded the state in Borneo.

Unnamed North African Lady

14…. Tribal Leader Lalla Aziza in Morocco

Very influential during her lifetime in her Berber tribe, she is now considered a saint who protects chasseurs and the aèdes berbères.


14.... Malika Tindu of the Jallarid Dynasty (Iraq)

Ruled sometime during the 15th century, and had the khubta - Friday's prayers - preached in her name.


1401-20 Reigning Dowager Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Oppeln (Opole) (At the time Germany, Now Poland)

Held the Duchy after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Władysław Opolczyk. She lived (1352-1418/24).

Caterina Visconti

1402-04 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina Visconti of Milano (Italy)

The widow of her cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who inherited the lands of his family. 1395 He bought his investiture as hereditary duke of Milan from Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus and later defeated Emperor Ruprecht who sought to restore imperial rule over Italy. During her regency for their son, Giovanni Maria Visconti (1389–1412). Many cities were lost and political chaos prevailed. On reaching his majority Giovanni Maria revealed himself a dissolute and cruel ruler. He was assassinated, and the duchy passed to his brother, Filippo Maria Visconti, (1392–1447). She lived (1360-1404).

1402-08 Sovereign Lady Valentina Visconti of Asti (Italy)
1407-08 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess of Orléans and the Counties of Valois, Blois, Dunois, Angoulême, Périgod, Dreux and Soissons (France)

After her husband, Duke Louis d'Orléans et cetera, was assassinated on the command of the Duke of Burgundy she became guardian of her children and took over the fiefs of her husband. She became the leader of the Orléans-party and worked for the rehabilitation of her late husband. Daughter of Duke Gian Galeazzo I of Milano, Lord of Pavia, Novara, Como, Vercelli, Alba, Asti, Tortona, Alessandria e Vigevano (1355-1402) and Princess Isabella de Valois of France and mother of eight children. She lived (1366-1408).


1402-13 Temporary Regent Hereditary Princess Infanta Juana of Navarra (Spain)

Recognised as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite 3 December 1402, and governed Navarre in the name of her parents, King Carlos III of Navarra (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León, during their absences abroad. 1401 she was bethrothed to King Martin I of Sicily, who instead married her sister, Blanca, who became Regent of Sicily in 1409 and Queen of Navarra in 1425. Their younger sister, Beatriz, was officially made third-in-line on the same occation in 1402. Juana did not have any children with her husband, Count Juan III de Foix. She lived (1382-1413).


1402-04 Sovereign Princess Maria II Zaccharia of Achaia, Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)

Succeeded her husband Pierre Bordeaux de San Superan (1386-1402). She was daughter of Centurione I Zaccharia, Lord of Veligosi, Damala and Chalandritza and was deposed by her nephew, Centurione II, who was prince until 1432/39. His daughter, Catharina Zaccharia, was marred to Thomas Palaiologos, Despot of Morea 1428-60 and Prince of Achaia from 1432.

1402-25 Sovereign Countess Bonne d'Artois of Auxerre, d'Eu, de Mâcon, de Vermandois, d'Amiens et de Ponthieu (France)

Inherited parts of the domains of Jean, Duke of Touraine, Dauphin de Viennous, Duke de Berry, Count of Poitiers and Ponthieu. First married to Philippe de Nevers and Rethel, with whom she had two sons, and then, as his second wife, her first husband's nephew, Philippe de Bourgogne. Died in childbed, and lived (1393-1425).


1402-10 Reigning Abbess Anna III von Gundelfingen of Buchau (Germany)

Probably daughter of Stephan von Gundelfingen. She was canoness around and 1385 and is confirmed as abbess in 1402. Her family was very influential in the Chapter during the 15th century, and she lived (circa 1360-1410).


1402-20 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Schwandegg of Schänis (Switzerland)

In 1403 she entered a treaty of a Burgrecht (Borough right) with the City of Zürich. The chapter had since then in the Münsterhof its own office that collected the income of the chapter in the city. She was member of the Freiherrliche family, the Barons of Schwandegg, which build the borough of Schwandegg in the 13th century and died out in the 15th.


1402-12 Countess Abbess Sophia III zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Restored the economic situation that had deteriorated during the reign of her predecessor, Luitgard III zu Hammerstein. She was the only child of Duke Ludwig and Mathilde zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. (d. 1412).

1402-24 Politically Influential Empress Xu of China

In charge of the administration of the City of Yan while her husband Zhu Di (the Yongle Emperor), was pursuing his campaign and in the midst of fierce fighting, she ascended the city walls and personally encouraged the troops to defend it.


1403-19 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Blois of Sancerre, Dame de Sagonne, de Marmande, de Charenton-du-Cher, de Meillant and de Faye-la-Vineuse, etc., (France)

Daughter of Jean III and Marguerite, Dame de Marmande. Married Gerard VI Chabot, Baron de Retz (d. circa 1364), Beraud II Dauphin d'Auvergne, Comte de Clermont (d. 1400), Jean de Saligny, Constable of Naples and Jacques de Montberon, Baron de Maulevrier (d. 1422).


1403-06 Princess-Abbess Adelheid III Abtsreuter of Baindt (Germany)

As ruler of the principality, she had the right to a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1403-07 Princesse-Abbesse Catherine II von Blamont of Remiremont  (France)

Concurrently held the office of Abbess of Epinal. In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformance of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire. (d. 1408).

1403-21 Political Advisor Lady Jelena Balšić of Zeta (Montenegro)

After her husband, Lord Durad II of Zeta, died in consequence of the injuries suffered in the Battle of Gračanica, she became the advisor of her 17-year old son, Balša III. She made him declare the Orthodox Church as the official confession of the state, while Catholicism became a tolerant confession. Her son waged two wars against Venezia, winning some territory and then loosing it again. He also became a vassal to the Ottoman Turks.  1419 he went to Belgrade to ask for aid from his mother's brother, Despot Stefan Lazarević, but never returned and 1421 he passed the rule of Zeta to his uncle. She had married Vojvode Sandalj Hranić Kosača of Bosnia in 1411 and lived (1365/70-1443).


1404-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Katharina Elisabeth von Braunschweig of Holstein (Germany)

After the murder of her husband, Gerhard IV, she was regent for their son, Heinrich IV, jointly with Bishop Heinrich of Osnabrück, Count of Holstein. Gerhard was count of Holstein-Rendsburg (1382-1404) before he was given Slesvig as a hereditary fief with the title of Duke by Queen Margrethe I of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1386. Elisabeth engaged in various disputes with Queen Margrethe and King Erik 6. of Pommern of Denmark over lands and incomes. Various dukes were asked to mediate, and in 1410 they made a truce. 1411 she gave the Shires of Søderup and Alslev to the Queen as security for lones. She was mother of 3 sons and two daughters, including Heilwig, who married Dietrich von Oldenburg, whose son, became Christian I of Denmark in 1448, and inherited Slesvig in 1459.


1404–19 Regent Duchess Marguerite de Bavière of Artois and Fanche-Comté (Burgundy in the Low Coutnries) (Belgium/France)
1419–23 Regent of Bourgogne (France)

In charge of the government during the absence of her husband, Count Jean de Bourgundie, who was regent for his mentally ill first cousin Charles de Valois VI of France. Jean succeded her father, Philip the Bold, as Duke of Burgundy, and his mother, Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy in 1404 and 1405. She became most known for her successful defense of French Burgundy against the Count of Armagnac in 1419. Her brother's daughter, Jacbäa succeeded to the counties of Hainault, Holland etc, but her grandson claimed the counties as his inheritance through her. She had 1 son and 7 daughters and lived (1363–1423)

Unnamed Reichsfürstin of Zürich

1404-12 Princess-Abbess Benedicta von Bechburg of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

Member of an ancient Baronial (Freiherrliche) family in today's Canton Solothurn with close links of the Canton of Bern.


1405-57 Politically Influential Gawhar Shad of Herat (Afghanistan)

Also known as Gowhar Shād, Gauhar Shad or Goharshad, she exercised extraordinary influence at court during the reign of her husband, Shah Rukh of the Timurid Dynasty, and among others advised him on military campaigns. She was a patron of art and architecture, donated grants to mosques, She outlived her husband, who died 1445, by a decade, manoeuvred her favourite grandson onto the throne, and was executed on July 19th 1457 on the order of Sultan Abu Sa'id. Goharshad. (lived before 1377-1457).

1405-17/18 Regent Dowager Signora Paola Colonna of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1441-45 (†) Regent of Elba and Piombino (Italy)

Following the death of her husband, Gherardo Leonardo Appiani, who was lord of Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, she was regent for their son, Iacopo II (1400/01-1441), who was succeeded by his sister Caterina. Paola was daughter of Agapito Colonna, Lord of Genazzano and sister of Pope Martinus V, and lived (1378/79-45).


1405-35 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Isenburg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

1426 Quedlinburg joined the German Hanse, the most powerful trade association in Europe. In 1435 she resigned and died five years later. She was daughter of Count Heinrich and Countess Adelheid von Isenburg. Resigned in 1435. (d. 1441).


Around 1405 Reigning Abbess Adelheid II von Hallwyl of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

She was member of an old Baronial (freiherrliche) family which was in the service of the Habsburgs and worked for the city of Bern, and was in charge of a number of lordships in Switzerland.

1406-18 Regent Dowager Queen Catalina de Lancaster of Castilla (Spain)

Widow of Enrique III (1379-90-1406) she was joint regent with Fernando de Antequera for son, Juan II (1405-06-54). She was an active regent, involved in financial matters, using her influence in negotiation about matrimonies and peace-treaties in the most important European nations. She was daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Aquitaine (1340-99) and his second wife, Constance, titular Queen of Castile (1354-94) whose father, Pedro I of Castile and Leon (1350-69), was succeeded by a brother. Through her mother's claims, Catalina was considered heiress of Castilla and married her half-cousin, King Enrique, and became the mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and lived (1374-1418).

Philippa of Denmark

1406-20 County Sheriff/Reigning Lady Queen Philippa of England of Denmark of the County of Nøsbyhoved (Denmark), Romerike (Norway) and the County of Närke  with the Castle of Örebro (Sweden)
1420 and 1425-27 and 1429-30 In Charge of the Government of Denmark in Sweden
County Sheriff/Reigning Lady of the County of Närke, most of the Mälar Area, all of the County of Västmanland with Västerås, the County of Uppland with Uppsala and the City, Castle and County of Stockholm
1423-25 Regent of Denmark, Norway and Sweden(August-May)

After her marriage to Erik VII of Pomerania, she was granted several fiefs in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. When Erik appointed his cousin, Duke Bugislav IX. of Pommern-Stolp, they made a settlement that meant that she was granted large parts of Sweden as her Dowry (livgeding) and she acted as her husband, 's representative in the country, and she spend much of her time here. During his pilgrimage to Jerusalem from 1423 she was Guardian of the Realm in Denmark. She made a treaty with some members of the North-German Confederation of so-called Hanse-States about the validity of the coin-system (A monitary union) using the titulature; "We, Philippa By the Grace of God, Queen in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths and Duchess in Pommerania...according the power and command that our dearest graceful Lord in his absence has commanded realm and land..". After his return, she was in charge of the government in Sweden. In 1426 she met with the Swedish Council of the Realm in order to secure military help in the war against the counts of Holstein and the following year she met with the Council to discus the war and domestic matters. 1428 she successfully organized the defence of Copenhagen against the attacking Hanse-Cities. The following year she returned to Sweden, gave birth to a still-born child in 1429, and lived (1394-1430).


1406-1408 Reigning Abbess Margaretha I von Wachingen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Related to Bishop Bertold von Wachingen. Her family originated in Mittenwald in Bavaria.


Around 1406-09... Princess-Abbess Anna of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

In 1406 she instigated a day of memory of the late Abbess Katherina. Dorotha was mentioned as Prioress in 1409 and Katherina as Cutrix


Until 1407 Chatelaine Jeanne de Luxembourg of Saint Pôl and Ligny, de Lille (France)

Daughter of Count Valeran III de Luxembourg-St-Pôl (1355-1415) and Lady Maud Holland (Half sister of King Richard II of England). Married to Antoine de Bourgogne, Duke of Brabant and Limbourg (d. 1415), and their son, Philippe succeeded her father as count.


1407-18 Princesse-Abbesse Henriette II d'Amoncourt of Remiremont  (France)

Held the office of Secrète 1381, 1384 and afterwards. Her election was contested by the supporters of Catherine de Blamont and Henri de Blamont deployed his troops in the territory, making it impossible for her to take up her position until 1412.


1408-38 Hereditary Countess Adelheid of the Wild- and Rheingrafschaft of Kyrburg and Schmidtburg (Germany)

Daughter of Gerhard III of Kyrburg und Schmidtburg, and Adelheid von Veldenz, and married to Johann III, Wild- und Rheingraf zu Dhaun (d. 1428). She (d. 1438).


Until 1408 Princess-Abbess Catherine de Blamont of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)

In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformation of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire, and (d. 1408).


1408-37 Reigning Abbess Bertha III von Freisingen of Gutenzell (Germany)

After the fall of the Stauffen kings the Chapter were able to became Imperial Immediate (reichsfrei), and in 1417 Emperor Sigismund granted certain privileges.

Queen of Navarra

1409-15 Vice-Reine Blanca I de Navarra of Sicilia (Italy)
1425-41 Queen Regnant Blanca I Navarra, Countess de Nemours and Everex  (Spain and France)

The daughter of King Carlos II of Navarra, Comte d’Évreux and Duc de Nemours (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León, she was recognised as second in line to the throne at Olite in 1402 and as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite in 1416, and succeeded her father in 1425. Her first husband was Martin I de Aragón (1392-1409), who had first been married to Queen Maria of Sicilia, Duchess of Athens, and was succeeded by his father, Martin II (1409-10), who named her as regent in Sicily. Her second husband was Federico I de Aragon, who became King Consort of Navarre in her right. Their son, Carlos de Aragón y Navarra (1421-61) was designated heir to Navarre from birth by the Cortes, but her husband was already trying in 1427 to change the order of succession in favour of their daughter Infanta doña Leonor. Infante Carlos was excluded from the succession on her death, with her husband as King. Carlos left Navarre 1451 for Guipúzcoa, supported by the Beaumont clan. Imprisoned 1453-1455, and after a brief reconciliation in 1460, Carlos was incarcerated at Lérida. And after his death in 1479 her daughter, Leonor became Queen. Blanca de Navarra lived  (1385-1441).


1409-42 Reigning Abbess Mathilde III von Waldeck of Herford (Germany)

Also known as Mechtild, she was also Abbess of Heerse, and the daughter of Count Heinrich III von Waldeck and Elisabeth von Berg. Her sister, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Kaufungen until her death in 1495.

Paola Malatesta

1409-44 Politically Influential Margravine Paola Malatesta of Mantova (Italy)

Took an active part in the government during the reign of her husband Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, who was Lord of Mantova and Captain of Popolo (1407-33) before being granted the title of Marchese by the Emperor in 1433. She was daughter of the Venetian noble, Carlo I Signore di Rimini and his wife Elisabetta Gonzaga dei Signori di Mantova. She lived (1393-1449).

Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut

1410-40 Temporary Regent Margravine Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)

Often managed the affairs of state and functioned as an effective ruler and valuable aid to her husband, Margrave and Elector Friedrich Hohenzollern I von Brandenburg-Ansbach und Kumblach. He was Burgrave of Nürnberg 1397-1409 and Elector from 1410. She was mother of 11 children, and lived (1383-1442).


 1410-26 Reigning Abbess Agnes von Tengen of Buchau (Germany)

In the year of her death she laid the foundation of the chaplancy of the Holy Cross (Heligkreuzkaplanie). Possibly daughter of Johann the Younger, Lord of Elisau and Freeherr of Tengen and Margrethe von Nellenburg. Lived (circa 1381-1426).


1410-13 Reigning Abbess Katharina I von Egloffstein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Swiss countly family, who were lords of the Castle of Egloffstein in the Swiss Franconia (Schweizische Franken).

Unnamed Muslim Lady

1411-19 Governor and Sultan Tandu of Baghdad (Iraq)

Also known as Tindu, she belonged to the Jalarid Dynasty, a branch of the Ilkhan Mongol rulers, and daughter of king Awis. She was first married to al-Zahir Barquq, the last Mameluk king of Egypt. She did not like life in Cairo and her husband let her go back to Baghdad, where she married her cousin Shah Walad bin Ali, the Governor for the Caliph, and after his death she acceded to the throne, had coins stuck in her name and the khutba (sovereign's prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques. She was one of the last Mongol rulers in the area.

Elisabeth von Görlitz of Luxembourg

1411-43 Elisabeth von Görlitz, by the Grace of God, Duchess of Luxembourg, of Brabant and of Limbourg, Margravine of the Holy Roman Empire and Countess of Chiny

Given the Dukedom of Luxembourg as mortgage (Pfandherzogin) by her uncle Emperor Sigismund von Luxembourg, who was also king of Hungary trough his marriage to Queen Maria of Hungary. Her first husband, Anton von Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, fought back three uprisings of the nobility until his death in 1415. Her next husband was Johann von Bavaria of Holland, and after his death in 1427, she became heavily indebted and sold her hereditary rights to Duke Philippe von Burgundy, but the Luxembourg states rejected this, but instead he invaded the duchy two years later. She was the only daughter of Duke Johann von Görlitz (d. 1396) and Ricardis von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, had no children and lived (1390- 1451).


Until 1411 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Coucy of Soissons (France)

Daughter of Enguerrand de Coucy, Count de Soissons, and married Philippe de Bourgogne, Count of Nevers and Donzy, whose second wife was Bonne d'Artois, heiress d'Eu et cetera. They had no surviving children, and her husband inherited the county.


1411 Regent Dowager Despotess Eudokia Balšić of Ioannina (Greece)

When her husband, Esau de' Buondelmonti, died, she attempted to maintain control of Ioannina in the name of her infant son Giorgio, but she was not popular with the local nobility and when they learned that she was seeking to marry a Serbian nobleman, they promptly deposed her and her son just 20 days after his accession. He survived until at least 1453, and his name appears in various Ragusan documents.


1411-15 Reigning Abbess Margaretha II von Grünenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Member of the Swiss noble family of the lords of Langenstein and Grünenberg.

1412-25 Regent Dowager Countess Catherine d'Alençon of Mortain (France)

After the death of her husband, Pierre de Navarre, she was regent for Louis I, dauphin de Viennois, Duc de Guyenne, Comte de Mortain. In 1413 she married Louis II de Bavière, Duke of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who also became count of Mortain.

Barbara von Cilli

1412-14, 1416-19 and 1431-33 "Stadtholder" Queen Barbara von Cilli in Hungary and Croatia
1437 "Stadtholder" of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1439-51 Reigning Dowager Lady of 28 Domains in the Czech Lands and Hungary

Her husband, Sigmund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary and King of Germany from 1410, king of Bohemia from 1419 and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433. In Hungary she took over the "regni curia" when he went to Italy, first supported by her brother-in-law the Palatine Garai Miklós and two bishops. 1414-16 she went to Aachen for the coronation and participated in the Council of Konstanz before she returned and took over the government in Hungary. In the 1420's she followed her husband on his journeys during the Empire and he included her in the decision-making. During her second regency in Hungary she managed to maintain peace after a settlement was reached with the Hussites. After her coronation as Queen of Bohemia in 1437 she also acted as regent here for a few moths. After her husband's death the same year she was arrested by his successor, Albrecht II, but was able to flee to Poland. 1426 she was granted 3 lordships in Mähren and given the incomes of several royal cities in Bohemia after her coronation in 1437, so that at the time of the death of her husband, she controlled 28 domains with a number of villages. After Albrecht's death in 1439 she returned and settled at her dowry at Melnik near Prague for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Herman II, Count von Cilli and Countess Anna von Schaunberg, mother of one daughter, Elisabeth who inherited Hungary and Bohemia, and lived (1390/95-1451).


1412-21 Lieutenant Queen Dowager Margarita de Prades of Aragón (Spain)

Though she held the title of Queen Lieutenant, she did not govern because she was only 15 when her husband, Martin I de Aragón died after 6 months of marriage. Since he had no children by any of his marriages, his death led to a 2 year interregnum, which was ended by the Pact of Caspe, in which Ferdinando I of Aragón, infante of Castile's House of Trastámara, younger son of his sister Leonor de Aragon, was chosen as the next king from among at least five contenders. She married her second husband Juan of Vilaragut in 1414, and when he died 1422, she entered the monastery of Monrepes. The daughter of Pedro de Aragon, Baron of Entenza (1352-1395) and Juana of Cabrera, she did not have any children and lived (1395-1422).


1412-29 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Hohenklingen of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

Represented by her father, Walther IX, Lord von Hohenklingen, Guardian of Stein am Rhein, at the Council of Konstanz, which assembled under the presidency of Emperor Sigmund.


Around 1412-about 1437 Princess-Abbess Lucia von Kerpen of Elten (Germany)

Founded the first public school in the area in 1412 and in 1437 she founded the chapter of Saint Ursula.


1412-17 Countess Abbess Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
1417-39 Princess-Abbess

Received the rank and title of a Princess of the Realm in 1417. Daughter of Duke Erich I of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Göttingen. Her sister, Sophie, was de-facto ruler of the territory from 1443. Agnes lived (circa 1406-39).


1413-26 Princess-Abbess Margareta I von der Mark-Arenberg of Essen (Germany)

During the 1500th century Essen was the only Imperial Free Worldly Ladies Chapter to develop a full "land-constitution" as territorial state within the German Realm with three estates; The Ladies of the Chapter (chanonesses), the male canons in the Abbey and the Office-holders of low nobility of the chapter. She was daughter of Eberhard von der Mark, Lord of Arenberg etc and Marie von Looz. One of her sisters, Maria, was Lady of the Chapter until she left it to marry and the other, Anna, was elected Abbess in Freckenhorst in 1427.


1413-17 Reigning Abbess Barbara I Höffer of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

In 1416 she and her chapter appointed the Provsosty of the Chapter to Heinrich V. Notthafft v. Wernberg as life-tenantcy from Georg v. Abensberg.

1414-35 Queen Regnant Giovanna II d'Angiò of Napoli  (Italy) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem Cyprus and Armenia, Sicily, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Ramia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria

Also known as Jeanne d'Anjou, she succeeded her brother, and two years later, her second husband, Jean de Bourbon, was imprisoned after trying to seize power. She adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir in 1421. After he tried to take over power in 1423, she transferred the adoption to another relative Louis III d'Anjou, who she had expelled in 1420 for trying to seize power. After Louis' death in 1434, his brother, Rene was appointed heir, but Alfonso took power after her death. She lived (1373-1435).


1414-37 Sovereign Princess Fiorenza Sommaripa of Antiparos  (Greece)

Daughter Gaspare Sommaripa, Lord of Paros and Maria Sanudo of Naxos and Antiparos, and married to Jacopo I Crispo, 11th Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos (1383-1418). Their two daughters, Maria and Fiorenza, were Co-Ladies of Milos.


1415-circa 26 Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Agnes von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (Poland/Germany)

One of her close advisors, Kurt Bonow, an old enemy of Stralsund, was killed, probably in 1417, by a member of the Regency Council, Marshall Degner Buggenhagen, who found refuge in Stralsund, but its inhabitants could not prevent that Buggenhagen was killed by Heneke Behr and his followers at the table of her husband's nephew, Duke Wartislaw IX of Pommern-Wolgast on her initiation in 1420. Consequently the cities of Stralsund and Greifswald to send troops to the Castle of Usedom, where Behr had sought refuge, he was caught and punished. She was widow of Wartislaw VIII. von Pommern-Wolgast (1373-1415) and mother of Barnim VIII, Duke of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (circa 1405/07-51) and Swantibor IV (circa 1408/10-32). Also mother of a daughter and another son that died in infancy, and (d. 1435).


1415-59 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Pierrepont Bar of Soissons, Marle and Roucy (France)

Granddaughter of Marie de Coucy (1366-1405), who was the granddaughter of King Edward III of England, who was heiress of Soissons and most of the Coucy's French estates. Her father, Robert, Count de Marle et de Soissons, was killed in battle in 1415. Her mother was Jeanne de Bethune (d. 1450) and she married Robert III de Sarrebruck, seigneur de Commercy (d. 1460), succeeded by son Jean VII, and lived (1415-62).


From 1415 Regent Dowager Countess Marie de Bretagne of Alençon (France)

Widow of Pierre II le Noble she ruled in the name of her son Jean V le Beau (1409-15-75-76). She lived (1391-1446). 


1415-48 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Melun of Tancarville, Vicomtess de Melun (France)

Successor of her father, Guillaume IV de Melun, Grand Bouteiller de France, who was killed at Agincourt, and married to Jacques II Baron de Montgomery, who had first been married to Leonore Jumelles, Dame de Cresèques. Her husband was killed in 1428. Her mother was Jeanne de Parthenay, Dame de Samblancay. She was first succeeded by her son, Guillaume and in 1484 by daughter Jeanne.


1415 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von von Blankenheim of Blankenheim-Gerolstein and Kasselburg (Germany)

Her father, Gerhard VII died in 1406 and the territory was administered by her uncle, Prince-Bishop Friedrich von Utrecht until his death in 1415. Her husband Wilhelm I. von Loon of the house of Heinsberg, then came in possession of the County. 

1415-31 Lady Philippa de Mohun of the Isle of Wight (United Kingdom)

Became Lady of the island after her third husband Edward, Earl of Rutland and Duke of York was killed at Agincourt. She was first married to Lord Fitzwater and secondly to Sir John Golafre.


1416 Regent Dowager Queen Nang Chlo Pumba of Lan-Xang (Laos)

After the death of Phya Ounmuong or Sam Sene Thai (1356-73-1416) she was regent for Lan Kamdaeng (1416-28). The name of the state is also spelled as Lan Ch'ang. 


1416-56 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth II von Leiningen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Might have been the seventh child of Count Rudolf von Leiningen-Rixingen, and Agnes von Zweibrücken.

Jacobaa zu Bayern

1417-28 Sovereign Duchess and Countess Jacobäa von Bayern of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, Lady of Friesland and Countess of Ponthieu (The Netherlands and France)
1428-33 Titular Countess

Only child of Willem VI of Bayern-Straubing and Hainault-Holland. In 1415 she married the French Dauphin, Jean de Touraine, who died 1417. The following year she got papal acceptance to marry her cousin Jean IV of Brabant. With the support of Emperor Sigismund of Germany, her uncle, Johan VI of Bavaria demanded that she accepted him as regent. He persuaded the Pope to withdraw the dispensation and gave her lands to him. In 1419 Philippe of Bourgogne intervened. Johan got parts of southern Holland. The next year her husband gave Holland, Zeeland and Hainault as security to Johan. She die not accept this and had the marriage annulled. In 1422 she married Humphrey of Gloucester and in 1424 they launched an attack on her ex-husband. In 1424 she was taken prisoner and the following year her uncle died. He had given the countries to Philippe of Bourgogne. She escaped and fought against Philippe until 1428 until she had to capitulate. In 1432 she married Frank van Borsele and the next year she abdicated. Died of tuberculosis and lived (1401-36). 


1417-20 Sovereign Countess Elénore de Beaufort of Touraine (France)

Succeeded brother, Raymond Louis de Beaufort. She was succeeded by her cousin Amanieu, who was first succeeded by his brother and in 1444 by niece, Anne. 

One of the sisters, Isabelle and Christine de Franckenberg

1417-23 Princess-Abbess Isabelle II de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Also known as Belle, she was the 35th ruler of the territory and was succeeded three others of the same family, Christine, Agnès and Wilhelmine.


1417-22 Reigning Abbess Herzenleid von Wildenwarth of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Cordula von Wildenwarth was Coadiutrix (Deputy Reigning Abbess) 1417-27.

Fon Nguopu of Banum

1418-61 Fon Nguopu of Banum (Cameroon)

Ascended to the throne after the death of her brother, Share Yen, who founded the state around 1394, but wore male dress, so that her gender was not discovered, and she ruled as Fon - or king.


1418-circa 33 Regent Dowager Duchess Sofia von Schleswig-Holstein of Pommern-Stargard (Pomerze) (Poland)

Also known as Zofia Holsztyńska, she reigned in the name of her son Bogusław IX of Pommern-Stargard after the death of her husband, Bogislaw VIII. She was daughter of Count Heinrich II von Holstein-Rendsburg (1317-40-82-84) and Mechtild zur Lippe, and lived (circa 1375-1448).


1418-21 De-Facto Joint Ruler Dowager Queen Kujava Radinović of Bosnia

She married King Ostoja in 1399, shortly after he repudiated his first wife, Queen Vitača. He gained support of the noble family of Radenović by marrying her, as they were closely related to the new queen consort. When her husband was deposed in 1404, he left Bobovac and fled to Hungary, but she and her son remained in Bosnia whose crown was given to her brother-in-law, King Stephen Tvrtko II. Tvrtko II himself was deposed in 1409 when Kujava's her returned from exile and resumed the throne, at which point she became queen of Bosnia once again, but the marriage started falling apart in 1415. Prince Pavle Radenović, her brother or cousin [1], was killed in a plot set by her husband. Duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić died soon after, leaving behind a wealthy widow, Jelena Nelipčić. Her husband saw the opportunity and divorced her and married Duchess Jelena, who brought Hrvoje's lands into marriage. Three years later her ex-husband died and was succeeded by their son, Stephen Ostojić. She suddenly became very influential and powerful, de facto ruling along with her son. Her son's short reign wa marked by her conflicts with Queen Jelena. Their conflicts stopped in the summer of 1419, when her son imprisoned the dowager queen. Jelena died under mysterious circumstances in 1422. After her son died in 1421 she supported various pretenders to the Bosnian throne.


1418 Princesse-Abbesse Marguerite II de Salvain of Remiremont  (France)

Another version of her name is Grilde de Salverne.


1418-21 Reigning Abbess..... von Schwandorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Her first name is to be checked.


1418-38 Reigning Abbess Marie I de la Chapelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

The chapter was placed under the direct authority of the Pope.

Queen Sophia of Bohemia

1419 Regent Dowager Queen Sophia of Bavaria of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

After the death of her husband, Václav IV of Bohemia (1378-1419), she acted as head of state until Sigismund of Luxembourg took over the throne. Her husband was king of Germany (1378-1400) and Duke of Luxembourg as Wenzel. She was the daughter of John II of Bayern-München and Catherine of Gorize, had no children, and lived (1376-1425).


1419-30 Sovereign Lady Johanna van Boutershem of Bergen op Zoom and Grimsbergen, Bracht et cetera  (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Hendrik II, and was joint ruler with husband, Jan I van Glymes, until his death in 1427. Succeeded by son, Jan II, and lived (circa 1330-90).


Around 1419 Reigning Princess Bikhakhanim of "A small polity located on the Taman Peninsula" (Russia)

May have been of Circassian, Georgian, or Cuman origin, but it is suggested that she was Princess Bikhakhatun, daughter of the Georgian prince Beka II Jakeli (d. 1391), the ruler of Samtskhe and Klarjeti. She was married to Genoese Jew Simeone de Guizolfi, who through this marriage became ruler of that country under Genoese overlordship. One of his heirs, Zacharias de Guizolfi, was still reigning in 1482.


1419-36 Reigning Abbess Brigitta Kopp of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Since 1227 the Abbey had been place directly under the Emperor as a Realm of the Holy Roman Empire. 

Maria of Aragón

1420-23 Lieutenant-General Queen Maria de Trastámara de Castilla of Aragon, Valencia and Mallorca
1432-58 Lieutenant-General of the Principality of Catalunya, (Spain)

Regent in Aragón and Cataluña during her cousin and husband, Alfonso V's warfare in Italy, conquering Napoli from Giovanna II in 1442. He was king of Aragon (1416-58), Napoli (1435-58) and Sicily (1442-58) and spent most of the time in Italy from around 1435. She was daughter of king Enrique III of Aragon and Catherine of Lancaster, was heir to the Castillian throne as Princess of Asturias 1402-05, had no children and lived (1401-58).


1420-36 Sovereign Countess Marie of Dammartin (France)

Married to Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and succeeded by daughter, Marguerite.


1420-51 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Greiffensee of Schänis (Switzerland)

In 1438 the Lordship of Windegg became a possession of the Cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, and thereby the chapter became a part of the Swiss Confederation (schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft). And even though the emperor confirmed the rights of the chapter in 1442, Glarus and Schwyz from then on considered themselves to be the rightful successors of the Royal Stewards of the chapter. Elisabeth was member of an old noble family that originated near Zürich.


1421 Hereditary Lady Luitgard von Bentheim of Steinfurt (Germany)

Inherited Steinfurt from her maternal grandfather, Ludolf VIII von Steinfurt, since her mother, Mechtild, had died the previous year. Luitgard ceded the lordship to her father, Everwin I, and thus to her stepbrothers. She later married Wilhelm von der Lecke, Lord van Berg-s'Herenberg.  


1421-28 Princess-Abbess Gertrud II von Helfenberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a Bavarian noble family.


1421-44 Princesse-Abbesse Isabella de Demengeville of Remiremont  (France)

Also known as Yasbel de Demengevelle, she had been Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1414-21.

Catherine of England

1422-28 Guardian Dowager Queen Catherine de Valois of England

Her husband, Henry VI died suddenly in 1422 and she was effectively exiled from court, suspicion falling on her nationality, and passed over as regent for her son Henry V by her brothers-in-law and kept away from her son. She entered a relationship and later married Owen Tudor, a Welsh courtier, who would become the founding father of the Tudor dynasty. Of their five children, two sons, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford, were to play an important role in the future of the English monarchy. She was daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau de Bavière, and lived (1401-37).


1422-24 Reigning Dowager Countess Rengarda di Brancaleoni of Cingoli (Italy)

Held the territory after the death of her husband, Giovanni Cima and in 1424 the county became part of the Papal State. 

1422 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II von Bussnang of Säckingen (Germany)

Was in office for about 6 months before she died. The noble von Bussenang family had a tradition of occupying high clerical offices - Abbots of St. Gallen and high officials by the bishop of Konstantz and Zürich and other parts of Switzerland. Another member of the family, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Säckingen (1307-18) before it became a principality within the German Empire. 


1422-28 Princess-Abbess Johanna von Hohenklingen of Säckingen (Germany)

Listed as Kellerin (Wine-maker) in 1395. She was sister of Klaranna (1379/80-1422), and daughter of Freiherr Walther von Hohenklingen, Lord of Stein. Her family was closely related to the Lords von Brandis im Emmental and the von Bechburg in the Canton Solothurn was of importance, and the family split into two lines in the 14th century -  Hohenklingen-Bechburg and Hohenklingen-Brandis.


1422-27 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Lords of Streitberg were originally noble officials of the local Bishop they joined the service of the Duke of Meran. Throughout the years the various family-lines fought over the inheritance and who were to be in charge of the Castle of Streitberg in Bavaria.

Maria d'Harcourt, Herzoginwitwe von Jülich und Geldern, Herrin von Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot und Brebeke

1423-27 Lady Maria d'Harcourt of Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot and Brebeke in Jülich and Geldern (Germany and the Netherlands)

Daughter of Count Jean VI d'Harcourt et Aumale and Catherine de Bourbon, Princess of France. After the death of her husband Duke Rainald IV, Duke of Jülich and Geldern, Count of Zutphen, she remained Lady of a number of possessions of Jülich. In 1424, she granted freedom to her serfs. Two years she married Duke Ruprecht von Jülich-Berg, Bishop of Passau and Paderborn. She lived (circa 1389-1427)

Another of the Franckenberg-sisters

1423-41 Princess-Abbess Christine de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Succeeded her sister, Isabelle I, and was member of the family De Mérode who used the surname of Franckenberg. 


1423-25 Reigning Abbess Henriette I de Mello of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

The chapter was still marked by the 100 years war, a conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet or Anjou.


1424–circa 1449 Sovereign Duchess Elena Korybutówna of Pszczyna within Racibórz-Karniów (Poland)

Widow of Prince Jan II and ruled together with Mikołaj III and Wacław of her dowry in Pszczyna, a part of the Slesian Duchy of Racibórz-Karniów.


1424-37 Sovereign Countess Marie I of Auvergne (France)
1424 Sovereign Countess of Boulogne

Granddaughter of Robert VII (circa 1282-1314-25), she succeeded her cousin, Jeanne II (1404-24), and was succeeded by husband, Bertrand I de la Tour and then by son, Bertrand II. The county had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d'Anjou, reigned as Duchess of Auvergne 1400-34. Marie d'Auvergne lived (1376-1437).


Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)

Married to Pierre d'Alençon, Comte du Perche and d'Alençon.

The picture shows her pulling off the belt of a member of the Royal Family who insulted her son at his wedding. Sofia Vitovtovna, Nee Princess of Lithuania was Regent of Moscow and Vladmimir Sofia Vitovtovna of Moscow and Vladimir (Russia)

1425-30 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Sofia Vitovtovna of Moscow and Vladimir (Russia)

After the death of her husband, Vasiliy I, she was regent for her fourth and only surviving son, the 10-year-old Vasiliy II , who reigned until 1433 and again 1434-62. She was daughter of Grand Duke Vytautas the Great of Lithuania ( Lietuva) (1392-1430) and Anna of Smolensk, and lived (1371-1453).


Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)

Married to Pierre d'Alençon, Comte du Perche and d'Alençon.


1425-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Schenkin von Landsberg und Sydow of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Schenkin von Landsberg or Schenkin von Sydow, she brought the chapter in disrespute. Engaged in fights with the ladies of the chapter, who accused her of misusing the fortune of the stift. She got a warning letter from the pope and later also one from the Cardinal of St. Angelia and the Bishop of Halberstadt, but she did not change her ways and a court was put together consisting of the Bishop of Halberstadt and the Princes of Anhalt and Brandenburg, who removed her right to make decisions on her own. But at that time she had already died. Her family had been appointed to the office of "Schenk" of the Margraves of Landsberg in the beginning of the 12th century and after Duke Rudolf of Sachsen took over the territory in 1328, they were given the fief of Teupitz and were also lords of Sydow.


Circa 1425-circa 30 Reigning Abbess Marguerite III de Bréban of Jouarre (France)

Daughter of Admiral Pierre de Bréban.


1425-38 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of the member of the family of Freiherren von Reischach and a decendant of Konrad von Reischach who married Titlar Queen Isabella of Mallorca.


1426-45 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV Stecke van Beeck of Essen (Germany)

After the resignation of Margareta von der Mark, 10 of the ladies of the Chapter voted for her and 11 of the male canons voted for Margarete von Limburg, who had the support of the Duke Kleve. The ladies - referring to the fact that they alone had the right to vote according to the various royal ad papal privileges -proclaimed her as Abbess, the men, referring to their majority, proclaimed to Margareta. The pope first confirmed the latter, but soon after withdrew the confirmation and installed her. She had sought refuge at the castle of Borbeck with the ladies of the chapter and was siege by the forces of Limburg, not until 1428 did the Papal legates manage to establish a ceasefire and she was confirmed as Abbess and the following she also granted the imperial fief. (kaiserliche Belehnung).


1426-49 Reignign Abbess Klara von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)

Daughter of Count Heinrich V von Montfort and Anna Truchsess von Waldburg and stepdaughter of Count Stephan von Guldenfingen, who was very influential in the chapter. Because of illness, she resigned in 1449 in favour of her relative Margarethe von Werdenberg, who was still a minor at the time, and died later the same year.

Jeanne d'Arc

1426-30 Army Leader Joan d'Arc in France

As a teenager, Joan believed she heard the voices of angels telling her to help the future Charles VII, who had been deprived of his inheritance by the English and the Burgundians, to regain his throne. Charles sent her to raise the siege at Orléans, which she did successfully, driving the English from the city and allowing him to be crowned at Rheims. She was soon captured by Burgundians and sold to the English, who found her guilty of witchcraft and wearing a man's clothes. She was burned at the stake in 1431 and canonized in 1920. She lived (1412-31)

Jeanne de Sancerre

1426-36 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Clermont-en-Auvergne and Sancerre, Dauphine of Auvergne (France)

The County of Auvergne had been divided into two - the Dauphinie and the County in 1155 and therefore there are Countesses and Dauphines with the same name. She was daughter of Berauld III, count of Clermont and Boulogne and Gabrielle de la Tour, Heiress of Auvergne. She married Louis de Bourbon, who was count of Clermont, Sancerre and Montpensier. She did not have any children, and lived (1412-34).

1427-47 Queen Regnant Suhita Prabusti of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Daughter of king Wikramawardhana Bhre Lesem Sang Alemu. The Damarwulan legend is associated with her reign, as it involves a maiden queen (Prabu Kenya in the story), and during Suhita's reign there was a war with Blambangan as in the legend. She was succeeded by 2 brothers.


1427-39 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Göttingen of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (Germany)

Widow of Erich II (circa 1383-98-1427) and acted as regent for son Heinrich III (1416-27-64) . She lived (ca 1390-1444).


1427 Reigning Abbess Beatrix von Rotheneck of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Since 1002 the Reichsstift was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany, and the chapter was granted royal protection and, immunity.


1427-44 Acting Reigning Abbess Osanna von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

As Coadiutrix she acted as head of the chapter and territory.


1427-34 Princess-Abbess Klara Strölin of Heggbach (Germany)

Also known as Ströl or Ströler, she was the first Abbess of the chapter to be given the rank of Princess of the Realm in 1429. Two of the three co-heirs to the lordship of Achstetten, Eberhard and Hans von Freyberg, had sold their rights of patronage over Burgrieden to Heggbach Abbey in 1420 and the Abbey possessed the right to dispense low justice from at least 1429 in Sulmingen and from 1491 in Baustetten. In Mietingen the abbey had acquired the right to dispense both low and high justice in 1442.
She was deposed and (d.  1460).


1428-42 Sovereign Duchess Euphemia of Münsterberg (Ziębice) (Poland)

Daughter of the Slesian Duke Boleslaw III of Münsterberg (1358-1410) and Euphemia of Schlesia-Beuthen-Kosel, and inherited the Principality after the death of her brother, Duke Jan (1380/90-1410-28). Married to Count Friedrich IV von Öttingen (d. 1423). She lived (1370/85-47).


1428-30 Princess-Abbess Margareth II von Klingen of Säckingen (Germany)

Probably identical with Margareth von Altenklingen who is mentioned as Küsterin (Verge) and acted as "election officer" at the election of her predecessor.


1428-63 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Herbersdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Known in a folkstale as "Frau Hitt", a cruel and despotic ruler of the Chapter and surrounding territories.

Elisabeth von Nassau-Saarbrücken

1429-38 Regent Dowager Countess Elisabeth de Vaudemont of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Germany) 

Also known as Elisabeth von Lothringen, and was daughter of Duke Friederich of Lorraine and Marguerite de Vaudémont-Joinville and grew up in the boarder-area between France and Germany and was bilingual. After the death of her husband Count Philipp I. she took over the regency of the country for her under-age sons. She translated four "Chanson de geste" in German and wrote her own novels and is known as the first German female author. (After 1393-1456).

Anna of Masovia

1429-36 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Kijowska of Mazowsze-Warszawa (Poland)

Also known as Anna Holszańska or Anne of Kiev, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son Bolesław IV after the death of her husband, Bolesław Januszowic of Masovia-Warsaw. She was daughter of Ivan Olshanski and Agrypina, and mother of 2 sons and a daughter. (d. after 1458).


1429-33 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen-Einbeck of Lippe (Germany)

When her husband, Simon IV, died her oldest son, Bernhard VII, was hardly one year old and she was pregnant with the second. She was in serious disputes with her brother-in-law, Otto, Dean of the Cathedral of Köln, who was named Guardian. In 1433 he gave part of the Lordship as security for loans he took out in order to secure her dowry at the Castle Brake, where she moved - without her sons. Otto died the same year and Archbishop Dietrich von Moers of Köln, the brother of her mother-in-law Elisabeth, was named regent. She lived (Ca 1411-56).


1429-84 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Höwen of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

Member of an old Swiss noble family, which saw several Prince-Abbots and Bishops.

Isabelle de Portugal

1430-71 Politically Influential Duchess Isabelle de Portugal of Bourgogne (France) 

As the third wife of Duke Philippe of Burgundy (1396-1467), she exercised power in the very wearied domains of her husband. She acted as regent in his absence, was in charge of the finances, negotiated treaties and initiated reforms of religious orders. Daughter of King João I of Portugal and Philippa de Gent and mother of Duke Karl (1433-1477)  (The father of Duchess Maria of Burgundy).


1430 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Saint-Pôl and Ligny and Dame de Roussy (France)

Known as La Demoiselle de Luxembourg, she was daughter of Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pol sur Ternoise and Guy de Luxembourg, Count de Ligny-en-Barrois (1335-60-78), she succeeded her grandnephew, Philippe, who was son of the Hereditary Countess Jeanne (d. 1407), daughter of Waléran III (d. 1415), and after her death, the two Counties were devided between two nepews, Pierre and Jean. She (d. 1430)


1430... Sovereign Lady Ludovica of Monte Porzio, Consignora, Bernardovecchio, Busichio, Ghirardo, Monleone, Calbana, Calbanella, Ginestreto e Secchiano, Castiglione (Italy)
1438... Lady of San Mauro

Daughter of Gaspare and Novella dei Signori di Roello and married to Niccolò da Montefeltro, natural son of Count Conte Antonio da Montefeltro.


1430-32 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Geroldseck of Säckingen (Germany)

First mentioned in documents from 1430 because of her dispute with Albrecht von Schönau and the compromise reached with his widow about the bailiffs' office (Meieramt) in 1432. Her family were lords of the Lordships of Lahr and Hohengeroldseck by Strasbourg.


1430-33 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Astúñiga of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As all the abbesses of the chapter, she was a member of one of the most illustrious noble families of Castillia.


Circa 1430-33 Reigning Abbess Marie II de Bréban of Jouarre (France)

Succeeded sister, but was deposed by king Charles VII.


1431-53 Sovereign Duchess Isabella of Haut-Lorraine and Bar (France and Belgium)
1435-38 Regent Queen of Napoli (Italy)

Succeeded her father Karl I as Duchess of Lorraine. Her husband, René d'Anjou (d. 1480), Duke of Anjou from 1430 was Duke by the right of his wife of Bar from 1434, and when Queen Giovanna of Napoli died in 1435, she left him her throne. Isabella led the government during his warfare with Giovanna's previous adopted heir King Alfonso of Aragón and Sicily and in 1442 he defeated René, took Naples, and the following year he was recognized as King by the Pope Eugene IV. Among Isabella's six children was Queen Margaret d'Anjou of England. Isabel lived (1410-1453).

1431-34 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Bayern of Haut-Lorraine (France and Belgium)

Apparently Marguerite de Bavière took over the regency after her husband, Karl II von Ober-Lothringen died, since his successor, Isabella resided in Napoli. Her marriage was not very happy and she devoted her time caring for the poor and founded a number of hopitals. Later declared Holy. The daughter of the German Emperor Ruprecht van der Pfalz and Elisabeth von Hohenzollern and  mother of two surviving daughters and two sons who died young, and lived (1373-34).


1431-34 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Hanau of Rieneck (Germany)
1434-60 Reigning Lady of the Office and Castle of Mainberg bei Schweinfurt in Henneberg

After the death of her husband, Thomas II (1408-31), she was regent for their two sons Philipp the Older, Lord of Grünsfeld, Lauda und Wildenstein (d, 1488) and Philipp the Younger, Lord of Lohr, Gemünden, Brückenau und Schildeck (d. 1497), until her marriage to Count Wilhelm II von Henneberg-Schleusingen (1415-44). Instead her brother took over as regent. She declined any rights of the county of Rieneck but received her dowry of 8.000 Guilders and Mainberg from her new husband. Mother of another 5 children. She was oldest daughter of Reinhard II and Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, and lived (1408-60).


1431-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d'Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Successor of her cousin Blanche d'Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque dHarcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d'Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.


1431-34 Contra-Abbess Marguerite II de Beaufort de Montmorency of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Elected in opposition to Marie II and was not recognized by the Pope.  


1432 Regent Dowager Sultana Aisha Sia of Ternate (Indonesia)

After the death of her husband Paduka Sri Sultan Bessi Muhammad Hasan, Kaicili Komalo Pulu, Sultan of Ternate (1377-1432), who established himself as paramount ruler of the Moluccas, taking the title of Kolano ma-Lukku in 1380, for grandson Kaicili Ngolo-ma-Kaya, who succeeded as Paduka Sri Sultan Gapi Baguna II. She was daughter of another sultan of the state.


1432-62 Sovereign Lady Aikaterina Asania Zaccariaina of Arcadia, Heiress of the principality of Achaia (Greece)

Also known as Aikaterina Asanina Zaccariaina, she succeeded her father, enturione II, who succeeded his father in 1401 as Lord of Arkadiak and was installed in 1404 as Prince of Achaia by Ladislas King of Sicily, but was dispossessed in 1430 by the Emperors of Byzantium. Her husband, Thomas Palailogos, Despot of Morea 1428-60, son of Emperor Manuel II of Byzantinium, was Lord of Archaia-by the right of his wife. She lived (1392-1462).


1432-84 Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Sulz of Säckingen (Germany)

She got papal dispensation to assume the office as she was on 22 at the time of her election. She mediated in a dispute between the fishermen of Säckingen and Laufenburg in 1438, Emperor Friederich II confirmed the rights and privileges of the Chapter in 1442, which suffered under the dispute between Austria and the Swiss Confederates and she reached an agreement with the Austrian Lordship Rheinfelden about the rights of the town of Mumpf. Her son, Hohann Thurn, was granted a position as canon at Säckingen through Papal  intervention. She was daughter of Count Rudolf von Sulz and Ursula von Habsburg-Laufenburg, Heiress of her father, Hans von Habsburg-Laufenburg, and lived (1409-84).


1433-43 Sovereign Countess Isabel de Urgell, (Titular Dame of Andorra) (Spain)

The daughter of Jaime II, Count de Urgell, etc, who died in jail in Jativa and Princess Isabel of Aragon (1380-1424), she was married to Pedro of Portugal, Duque de Coimbra (1392-1449). They did not have any children, and she lived (1409-43).


1433-1447 Co-ruler Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Teschen-Freistadt  (Cieszyn) (Poland)

Reigned the Slesian Duchy together with her 4 sons. She lived (1395/8-1447).


1433-57 Reigning Abbess-General María de Sandoval I of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her official title was "noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals".


1433-62 Reigning Abbess Jeanne III de Melun of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Sister of Philippe de Melun, councillor of King Charles VII. After her death both Isabelle de Neuville and Marguerite de Levilly were elected abbesses. Jeanne d'Ailly took over in the end.

1434-38 Possible Member of the Regency Council Dowager Queen Zofia Holszańska of Poland
1434-61 Politically Active

Also known as Sonka or Sofia of Holszany. After the death of her husband, king Władysław II Jagiełło, she lost the struggle over the regency for her son King Władysław III Warneńczyk of Poland and Hungary, though new research indicates that she might have been Regency Council Member. Anyhow she remained involved in politics, and in 1454 helped her younger son, Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk, to asume the throne after the death of his brother. She lived (1405-61).

Unnamed Ethiopian Lady

Around 1434 Governor Princess Medhyn Zemeda of Damot in Ethiopia

Held the additional high office of "keń bituedded". She was daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub (ruled 1434-68), who appointed his daughters to high state offices and governors in the provinces. Her sister, Byrhan Zemeda, held the office of "gyr bituedded".


Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Meszih of Amhara in Ethiopia

Their brother, Baeda Mariam I, also known as either Siryakos or Dawit II (ruled 1507-40), killed his mother, Tseyun Work, for attempting to usurp power.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Dyl Semra of Tigraj in Ethiopia

Another daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob, who was also known as Yaqub or Qwastantinos I or Constantine. He was father of one son.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Semra of Godzham in Ethiopia

Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Rom Genejda of Scheua in Ethiopia

One more daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Segedu of Geń in Ethiopia

Another daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Tsebele Marjam in Ethiopia

Also known as Abala Marjam.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Gijorgis of a Province in Ethiopia

The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Sofija of Gyddym in Ethiopia

Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Bahyr Mengyschain of a Province in Ethiopia

The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.

Unnamed Chinese lady

1435-42 Regent Dowager Empress Zang of China

Widow of Emperor Hsuan Te (1425-35) and ruled in the name of her son, Zhu Qizhen (Zhengtong), who was Emperor (1435-49) and (1457-64). She was one of the most powerful of all Ming empresses was accompanied by her son, on a visit to Wansuishan, the artificial mountain just behind the palace. They also made a very public visit to the Ming tombs, thirty li northwest of the city. (d. 1442).). 

1535-38 Regent Electress Mechtild von Savoien-Achaien of Pfalz (Germany)

From 1430 the progressing blindness of her husband Ludwig III von Wittelsbach, Elector of the Palatine, forced him to transfer more and more of his powers to his brother, Otto, and in 1435 she was appointed joint regent together with brother-in-law and a Council of 25. The following year she became regent for her son, Ludwig IV after his death, but died before he came of age. She lived (1390-1438)


Until 1435 Princess-Abbess Margarethe I Sattelbogerin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not certain whom she followed on the post as Reichsfürstin and ruler of the ecclesiastical territory.


1435-56 Princess-Abbess Barbara I von Absberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Head of the territory had been a Princess of the Realm since 1315.


1435-38 Princess-Abbess Agathe II Grähter of Heggbach (Germany)

Another version of her surname is Gretterin.


1435-58 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Plauen-Reuss of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Heinrich IX von Reuss, Lord of Plauen und Auerbach and Countess Anna von Riesenberg. (d. 1458).

1436-38/39 Reigning Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Ludwik II of Brzeg and Legnica, Elżbieta Hohenzollern ruled in her own name until she married her brother-in-law, Wacław I 1438/39, but the marriage ended in divorce. Later regent for son. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich I von Brandenburg and mother of four children, and lived (1403-49).


1436-39/65 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Nanteuil of Dammartin (France)

Daughter of Marie Dammartin and Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and married to Antoine de Chabannes (d. 1488), one of the favourites of King Charles VII, who fought under the standard of Joan of Arc, became a leader of the Ecorcheurs, took part in the war of the public weal against Louis XI, and then fought for him against the Burgundians. Their son, Jean de Chabannes, left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the countship to Philippe de Boulainvilliers. She lived (1422-75).


1436 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Rothenstein of Rottenmünster (Germany)

The Chapter became an Imperial Immediacy (achieved Reichsunmittelbarkeit) in 1442 and the Abbess became Lady of the Chapter and its possessions, and given the right to collect taxes and customs. After the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 6 administrative units, called Imperial Circles or Reichskreisen in 1495, in the Abbess of Rottenmünster became member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the Regional Assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis. 1521 the Abbess was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände - the territories of the Realm - which meant that she was member of the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The next known Princess-Abbess was Ursula Scherlin, who was in office 1657-87.


1436-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d'Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Successor of her cousin Blanche d'Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque d'Harcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d'Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.


1437-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Francesca Morosini of Naxos et de L'Archipel (Greece Island-State)

After the death of her husband, Giovanni II Crispo of Naxos, she first imprisoned by her brother-in-law, Guglielmo Crispo, who claimed the regency for his son, but after 4 years she took over as regent for her son Giacopo II (1433-47). After the death of his cousin Andrea Zeno Lord of Andros in 1437, the Venetians installed their nominee Francesco Quirini to rule the island, Duke Giacomo being blackmailed into acceptance by threat of attack. In 1440 a Venetian court ruled in favour of Crusino I Sommaripa, son of Maria Sanudo, as ruler of Andros. Her daughter Adriana was deprived of her rightful inheritance by Guglielmo. She (d. after 1455)

Elisabeth of Böhmen

1437-40 Queen Elisabeth von Luxemburg of Bohemia and of Croatia-Dalmatia, Sovereign Duchess of Luxembourg
1439-1440 De-facto Regent of Hungary (27.10-29.07)

Known in Hungarian as Luxemburgi Erzsébet királyné, she was daughter of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, who was joint regent and successor of his first wife, Queen Maria d'Anjou of Hungary. Her mother was Barbara Cilli. After his death in 1437, the Hungarian Estates recognized her as sovereign or Lady of the Land (Landesherrin), which pawed the way for her first husband, Albert von Habsburg's election as king of Hungary. After his death in 1439, she wanted to secure the throne for the unborn child. This would have meant that the reins of government would have been in her hands, but this the estates would not accept, and they offered the crown to Wladislas II Jagiello of Poland. In February, her son Lászlo was born and on 15 May, she had him crowned. However, the Estates declared that this had happened against the will of the people and in June, they invalidated her son's coronation. Elisabeth had secured the holy Stephan-Crown and Wladislas had to be crowned with another crown. A civil war followed among her supporters and those of the Polish king. Lászlo V the Posthumous was recognised as king in 1446 with Hunyadi Janos (John Corvinius) as regent until 1453. When he died in 1457 her two daughters, Elisabeth and Anna, inherited some of the rights to the family lands. She lived (1409-42).

Joan Beaufort

1437-39 Regent Dowager Queen Joan Beaufort of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

After her husband, James I, was murdered, she reigned on behalf of their seven-year-old son James II. Despite her efforts he became the pawn of two unscrupulous Scottish lords, Sir William Crichton and Lord Livingstone. The Black Douglas entered the fray and succeeded in defeating and executing Livingstone. Crichton, in turn, manipulated James into killing the Black Douglas. Eventually, James II defeated the Douglas family at the battle of Arkinholm. Daughter of John Beaufort and Margaret Holland, she had eight children by James I of Scotland and one with her second husband, James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn (circa 1383-circa 1451) John Stewart, 1st Earl of Athol. (d. 1445).


1437-44 Reigning Abbess Agnes of Gutenzell (Germany)

Emperor Sigismund confirmed the privileges of the Chapter in 1437, and they formed the legal foundation of the territory's position as an independent state.


1438-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I Hoffmann of Heggbach (Germany)

In old sources her surname is written as Hofmannin. The chapter aquired the right to dispence both low and high justice in one of its possessions, the village of Mietingen, in 1442.

Leonor of Portugal

1438-40 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Aragón-Urgell of Portugal and The Agaves

Also Countess de Urgell and Duchess de Goimbra. Her husband, Duarte (1391-1433-38) had appointed her as regent of in his will for their son, Afonso V (1432-38-81). However, she was inexperienced and, as an Aragonese, unpopular with the people who preferred the late king's brother Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. Negotiations for a compromise arrangement were drawn out over several months, but were complicated by the interference of the Count of Barcelos and the Archbishop of Lisbon, as also by her giving birth to a posthumous daughter in March 1439, and by the death of her eldest daughter, Philippa. Eventually the Cortes appointed Pedro the sole Regent, but Eleonore continued conspiring, but was forced to go into exile in Castile in December 1440. She was daughter of Fernando I of Aragón and Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque (1409-45).

Unnamed Laotian Lady

1438 Queen Regnant Samdach Brhat-Chao Nang Keo Phim Fa Mahadevi of Lan-Xang (Laos)

Took over as ruler after having placed various princes on the throne. She only reigned for a few months before she was deposed and killed. She lived (1343-1438).


1438-62 Sovereign Duchess Eléonore de Bourbon-La Marche of Nemours, Countess of Castres and La Marche (France) 

Daughter of Jacques de Bourbon-La Marche (1370-1438) and Beatrix d’Évreux, the daughter of Carlos III of Navarra. Her father's second wife was Giovanna II of Napoli. Eleonore was married to Bernard d'Armagnac, Count de Pardiac. 


1438-44 Princess-Abbess Anna V Schenkin zu Limpurg of Baindt (Germany)

1437 Emperor Sigismund had granted the Princess-Abbess of Baindt the right to act as a low court judge (Niedere Gerichtshofheit).


1438-65 Reigning Abbess Bonne de a Viefville of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Seigneur of Thiennes and Blaringhem.


1439-circa 46 Sovereign Princess Maria de Sommaripa of Antiparos  (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded father Crusino I. She was daughter of Princess Maria Saudos of Andros, Gespario and Samnaripa 


1439-61 Reigning Dowager Duchess Scholastika von Sachsen-Wittenberg of Naumburg am Bober (Nowogród Bobrzański) (Poland)

Also known as Scholastyka Wettin, she held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry after the death of her husband, Duke Johan von Sagan (Jan I of Żagań).


1439-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Małgorzata of Wołów (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Duke Konrad V Kantner of Oleśnica (Oels) and Kozielsk, she held the Slesian lordship as her dowry. 


1439-92 Joint Hereditary Lady

 of Wevelinghoven (Germany)

Daughter of Wilhelm II von Wevelinghoven and married to Heinrich IV von Gemen and they were succeeded by their daughter, Cordula. She lived (1423-circa 92).


1439-? Joint Hereditary Lady Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of Wevelinghoven (Germany)

Sister of Anna, she married Johann VI. von Reifferscheid in 1433. She received the Lordship of Alfter and the Erbmarschallamt Köln after an agreement with her husband in 1461.


1439 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Dorstadt of Gandersheim (Germany)

Succeeded Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen.


1439-52 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Ilse, she was sister of Agnes who reigned the territory (1412-39), she was elected Fürstäbtissin in the year she became widow of Duke Kasimir V of Pommern, even though - according to the statutes from 1357 - she would not have been allowed to enter the chapter as she was not unmarried. She lived (circa 1409-52).


Around 1440-46 Princess-Abbess Sophie of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)

Transformed the lower parts the north transept of the Chapel .

1441 Hereditary Duchess Bianca Maria Visconti of Milano (Italy)
1466 Regent of Milano

Heiress of the duchy and married to Francesco Sforza. She was a very energetic woman who assisted her husband in the administration of the state. Her cultural engagement was one of the contributing factors to the Lombardian Renaissance. After her husband's death she was in charge of the government and had the Privy Council elect her son, Galeazzo Maria Sforza - who was in France at the time - as Duke. She lived (1425-68).

1441-51 Sovereign Signora Catarina Appiano of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriato, Abbadia, al Fango, Vignale, Valle, Montini and the Island of Elba (Italy)

Daughter of Gherardo Leonardo who was, Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, who lived (1375-1445), succeeded her brother, Jacopo II, and died of the plague. Married Rinaldo Orsini Conte di Tagliacozzo et Alba, and was succeeded by uncle Emanuele. She lived (1402-50).


1441-54/55 Reigning Dowager Duchess Margareta von Oppeln in Ohlau and Niemcza (Oława)

Also known as Małgorzata Opolska, she held the principality after the death of her husband Ludwig III of Lüben, Hainau, Ohlau, Nimptich and Brieg. She was the daughter of Duchess Bolesław IV of Opole and Małgorzata of Gorycja, mother of 2 sons: Jan and Henryk, and lived (1412/14-1454/5).


1441-49 Princess-Abbess Agnès I de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The third ruler of the territory from the Mérode-family that used the name of Franckenberg.


1441-52 Reigning Abbess Barbara von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

One of many members of her family to be Abbesses of the chapter.

1442-58 (†) De Facto Co-Regent Queen Helena Palaiologina of Cyprus

Probably the most important event in the reign of Jean II was his marriage to Helena of Byzantine-Morea. She was stronger in character than her husband, took over the running of the kingdom and brought Greek culture out of the oblivion in which it had languished for three centuries. Her actions in favour of the Orthodox faith and Greek culture naturally disturbed the Franks, who came to consider her a dangerous enemy, but she had become too powerful to attack. Greek Cypriots have always revered Queen Helena as a great heroine because of her boldness. Their daughter and heir, Charlotte, was married to João, duke of Coimbra, grandson of the king of Portugal, who used his influence in support of the Catholic party, and so incurred the enmity of the Queen that Helena persuaded King Jean II to exclude him from any share in the government, on the grounds that he might grow too powerful and attempt to seize the crown. João left the court with his wife and died within a year under circumstances, which led to the belief that he had been poisoned at the instigation of Helena. In 1458 Helena died and the king, now entirely under the influence of his illegitimate son, Jacques, thought to make him his heir. But a few months later Jean himself died and Charlotte succeeded him as Queen at the age of twenty-two. Helena lived (1432-58).


1442-84 Reigning-Abbess Margaretha I von Gleichen of Herford Germany)

In dispute with the Hereditary Steward and Lords von Helfenstein-Sporkenburg about a number of tenants and villages and against her protests, Johann XII von Helfenstein, Lord of Sporkenburg, placed the villages Arnberg and Immendorf under the protection of the Archbishop of Trier. This created the situation where the Abbey were Lords of the Fief and the Bishopcy were Lord Guardians.


1442-43 Contra-Abbess Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Herford (Germany)

In oppositon to Abbess Margarete von Gleichen. 1476-79 Jakobe von Neuenhar was Contra-Abbess.


1442-76 Politically Influential Princess Magdalena Oppeln (Opole) (Poland) 
1474 Regent of Oppeln

Very influential during the reign of her husband Mikołaj I, and in 1474 she acted as regent for him. She lived (1426/30-1497).


1442-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Margaretha von Ratibor of Gostynin in the Masovian Duchy of Rawa (Poland)

Also known as Małgorzata Raciborska, she received the town of Gostynin as her dowry after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Siemowit V of Masovia-Rawa, while the rest of the domain was joined with Płock.

Unnamed Vietnemse Queen

1442-59 Regent The Dowager Queen Nguyễn Thị Anh  of Vietnam

When Nguyen Thi Anh's husband, King Lê Thái Tông, died, she took over the regency for her 1 year old son, Lê Nhân Tông. In reality, the real power behind the throne was Trịnh Khả and together they managed to rule Vietnam reasonably well, though there was some friction. Her son was officially given the powers of government in 1453 even though he was only 12 years old. This was unusual and seems to have made little real difference, the she continued to rule while the other noble families acted as a brake on her power. In 1459 her late husband's oldest son staged a coup, killed the king and the next day she allowed herself to be killed by a loyal servant. She lived (circa 1422–1459).


1444-(90) Sovereign Countess Agnes de Touraine (France)

Succeeded brother, Pierre. Her husband Agne de la Tour, was count by the right of his wife (1445-90).


1444-60 Co-Ruler Duchess Margaret Cilly of Schlesien-Teschen-Gross-Glogau
1460-76 Titular Duchess of Głogów and Żagań

Also known as Małgorzata Cyllejska, and after the death of her husband, Władysław of Głogów and Cieszyn, she formally held Glogau and Sagan as her dowry until she was deposed and the principality was incorporated into Schlesien-Teschen-Freistadt. Daughter of count Herman III of Cilly. (d. 1480).


1444-57 Princess-Abbess Wandelburgis of Baindt (Germany)

In the first year of her reign, she temporary took over the Patron-rights over Wechstsweiler.


1444-52 Princesse-Abbesse Henrica III de Vienne of Remiremont  (France)

Also known as Henriette de Vienne.


1444-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Hofmann of Heggbach (Germany)

Heggbach was the only ecclesiastical territory where the Princess-Abbess mainly came from peasant and merchant families.


1444-59 Reigning Abbess Dorothea Neth of Gutenzell (Germany)

It is not clear when the abbesses became Princesses of Empire, Princess-Abbesses (title Reichsäbtissin zu Gutenzell), but in 1417 and 1437 the Chapter was granted certain privileges by Emperor Sigismund.


1444-48 Reigning Abbess Ursula von Tauffkirchen-Hohenrain und Höchlenbach of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Originated from a family of Lords of the Watercastle in Taufkirchen near Munich and the lords of Hohenrain in Switzerland.

Later picture of Queen Margaret of England

1445-54 De-facto in charge of the Government Queen Margaret d'Anjou of England
1455-82 Leader of the Lancastrian Party
1460-61 Acting Regent of England

Dominated her husband, Henry VI, and was very determined to keep him on throne during the War of the Roses. She headed the Lancastrian forces, and also controlled the government during her husband’s fits of insanity (1445-53). When he became incapable of reigning in 1453 shortly after the birth of their first child, Edward of Lancaster, she presented a bill to the parliament which would have named her regent, but it was defeated and the following year she appointed Richard of York as Protector. The Yorkists deposed her husband in 1461, and she and her son fled to Scotland and then to France. The following year she invaded Northumbria, but it did not achieve anything, so she once again returned to France. Gathering her forces, she again landed in England in 1470, and this time her army prevailed and Henry was replaced on the throne of England. But soon after the Lancastrian forces were defeated by Yorkists at Tewkesbury, in the battle in which her son was killed. When Edward IV regained the throne, her husband was soon put to death. She was captured herself and imprisoned in Tower. Edward IV eventually ransomed her to King Louis XI and she was allowed to return to France, where she spent rest of her life in seclusion. She lived (1429-82).


1445-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Brandenburg of the City of Friedberg in Bayern (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig VIII of Bayern-Inglofstadt (1403-45), she kept her father-in-law, Ludwig VII (1365-1447) imprisoned at the Neuburg in order to use him as exchange for the damage payment demanded by her brother, Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg-Ansbach until Heinrich the Rich of Bayern paid the ransom. She kept her residence at Neuburg even though her dowry was at the Castle of Friedberg, and she died in Landshut. (d. 1465).


1445-1456 Politically Influential Duchess Małgorzata of Szamotuły in Racibórz (Poland)
1456-? Regent
Until 1464 Co-Ruler

Very active supporter of her second husband was prince Wacław II of Racibórz' politics. After his death she became regent and (later) co-ruler of their son, Jan V. (d. 1464).


1445-47 Princess-Abbess Sophia II von Daun-Oberstein of Essen (Germany)

Member of the family of the Counts von Daun-Falkenstein, Lords of Daun-Oberstein und Falkenstein, who were vassals, of the Duchy of Berg.


1445-63 Princess-Abbess Mechtildis II von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Perhaps Coadjurix and Pröbstin (Deputy Abbess) from 1439. Also known as Mathilde, she was daughter of Siegmunt I von Anhalt-Dessau and Jutta von Querfurt. Her niece, Scholastika, was abbess from 1569. Mechtildis (d.1463).


1445-49 15th Territorial Countess Anne de Beauchamp of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1447-49 Lady of the Isles (Dependency of the English Crown)

As the only daughter of Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and 14th Earl of Warwick, she was heir to the Warwick and the Despenser lands, the latter trough her grandmother, Isabel Despenser. When she died in January 1449, aged only five, her heir was her aunt Anne Neville, her father's only sister in the full blood. His half-sisters were barred from any claim through common law to her estates. None the less a royal license dated 12 July 1449 described Margaret, Eleanor, Elizabeth and her as joint heiresses of Richard Beauchamp, but on July 23 of the same year, the king granted the title of Earl of Warwick to Richard and Anne Neville, declaring she was Henry Beauchamp's heir. Anne de Beauchamp lived (1443-49). 


1446-49 Regent Dowager Princess Maria of of Poland of Pommern-Stolp (Pomerze-Słupsk) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Bogisław IX, she was regent during the absence of his nephew, King Erik VII of Denmark and Sweden, who had abdicated in 1438 and spend the years 1442-49 as a privateer in the Baltic Seas, until he retired to Pomerania with his partner, Cecilia and lived there until his death in 1459. He was succeeded by her daughter, Zofia. Maria was the daughter of Duke of Mazowsze Siemowit IV and Aleksandra of Poland, a sister of king Władysław II Jagiełło, and lived (1408/15-1454).


1446-1528 Sovereign Princess Lucrezia Loredano of Antiparos  (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded sister. 1207 the Venetian noble Mario I Sanudo conquered the Cycladerna, Sporades and other islands in the Aegean Sea from the Byzantine Empire. Naxos became the centre, but later the Aegean was marred by pirates and some times the Island of Antiparos was abandoned all together. In 1537 the island was occupied by the Ottomans.


1446/47 Reigning Dowager Lady of Dagno Danjë (Albania)

The Lordship was also known as Dagno or Danja. In 1444 Gjergji Skanderbeg liberated parts of Albania and united the Albanian Princes in the "Liga of Lezha" in the fight against the Ottoman Turks, but 1448 the city and lordship was lost.


1446-54 Princess-Abbess Jakoba van Heinsberg-Loon of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Took over as acting sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Principality from Mechtildis, who vacated the position, but remained titular Abbess to her death. Jacobäa abdicated in 1454 and moved to the court of her half-brother, the Prince-Bishop of Liège, where she seems to have fallen in love with the Knight van der Marck. Since she was also very pious she withdrew to a Benedictine Chapter - another version of the story is that he died in a duel. She was daughter of Johann II von Loen, Lord of Jülich and Heinsberg and his second wife, Anna von Solms, and died 1466.


1447-59 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth V von Saffenberg of Essen (Germany)

She might have been identical with the Elisabeth von Saffenberg, Lady of Saffenberg, Co-Heiress of Thomberg, Lanscroon, Koningsfeld and Meyl who was married Luther von Quadt zu Lantscroon, Knight from 1464 and Lord of Tomberg, Lanscroon, Hardenberg and Vorst. This Elisabeth was daughter of Croft van Saffenberg en Elisabeth Tomberg.


1447-70 Abbess Nullius Sancia Fungeta of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Among the many privileges she enjoyed as Abbess were that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.

1448-49 Regent Dowager Empress Helena Dragaš of the Byzantine Empire (Greece)

Left the convent where she had stayed since the death of her husband, Emperor, Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-91-1425), and asserted her right to act as regent until the eldest of her surviving sons arrived from Greece, after the death of her oldest son, John VIII Palailogos, since the younger of the surviving sons, Demetrios, had hurried to the capital to stake his claim over the older Constantine XI. She sent George Sphrantzes to the Sultan Murad to seek his approval and recognition of Constantine as the new Emperor, and  commissioned two of her leading courtiers to go to Mistra to confirm the fact of his succession. On 6 January 1449 they proclaimed and invested Constantine, who died in 1453 as the last Byzantine Emperor. The daughter of Constantin Dragaš, Authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhesother of 9 sons and 1 or 2 daughters, and lived (circa 1372-1450).

Queen Dorothea of Denmark

1448 "Holder of the Royal Authority" Dowager Queen Dorothea zu Brandenburg of Denmark
1448-52 Mistress of the Counties of Örebro, Närke and Värmland (Sweden)
1481-90 Regent of Slesvig-Holsten (Schleswig-Holstein) (Germany)

The "royal authority" was vested in her after the death of her first husband, Christoffer 3 of Bayern. She contra signed and authorized the decisions made by the Council of State, which reigned the country. Later same year she married the new king Christian I of Oldenborg and often acted as regent during his many warfares. Her dowry included Roskilde Len and Ringsted Len, and held large parts of Lolland, Falster, Slesvig and Holsten together with Abrahamstrup, Kalundborg, Närke and Värmland (Sweden) as security for loans she granted her husband. She founded a convent in Køge and travelled twice to Rom on pilgrimages. A month before his death, Christian granted her Slesvig-Holsten as a personal fief, and after his death she acted as regent for son, Frederik, (later king) in the Dukedoms. She lived (1430-90).


1448-69 Sovereign Lady Johanna von Loon zu Heinsberg of Heinsberg, Geilenkirchen, Dalenbroich, Diest, Sichem and Zeelhem (Germany and The Netherlands)

Daughter of Johann IV von Loon, Herr zu Heinsberg and Johanna von Diest and married to Johann II von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1423-72) and lived (1443-69).


1448-68 Reigning Abbess Ottilia von Abensberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of an ancient Austrian noble family.


1449-96 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I von Werdenberg of Buchau (Germany)

Only 12 when elected abbess, and the Pope appointed the Counts Ulrich and Ludwig von Württemberg and the City of Ulm to run the affairs of the Chapter, and her mother, Elisabeth von Württemberg, was also influential. First mentioned as Princess of the Realm in 1455. She problably took over the reigns herself around 1466 when she reached the age of 30, the normal minimum age for abbesses. Her father was Johann IV von Werdenberg of the House of Montfort, she was succeeded by sister, Anna, and ived (circa 1436-66).


1449-62 Princess-Abbess Marguerite I d'Escornais of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.

1449-50 Territorial Hereditary Countess Anne de Beauchamp Neville of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1471-87 Lady of the Isles (Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Brechou, Herm, Jethou and Sark) (Dependencies of the English Crown)

Inherited the claim to the title of her brother's daughter Anne de Beauchamp, though her half-sister claimed the lands and title. After an investigation into Anne de Beauchamp's estates affirmed that she was the heir and on 2 March 1450 a fresh grant of the title of Warwick was made to her and her husband, Richard Neville, who became the 16th Earl, this time adding provision that her sister, Margaret would inherit if the Nevilles remained childless. Anne and her husband were also confirmed with the office of Chamberlain of the Exchequer, which was part of the earldom of Warwick, on 6 December 1450 and her husband took possession of the office. Her half-sisters and their husbands immediately protested, and in consequence, her husband was removed from the office and the king committed it to temporary custodians until the Exchequer court could determine the rightful owner. 1454 they were re-confirmed with the office. After his death in 1471, she took over as Lady of the Isles. Their daughter, Anne Neville, first married the Prince Edward of Wales, and then Richard III. Anne de Beauchamp Neville lived (1426-92).

Last update 05.05.16


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