Women in power 750-1000

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

Queen Chamadevi Around 750 Queen Regnant Nang Chamthewi of Hariphunchai  (Thailand)
Also known as Channa Devi, Channadevi or Queen Jamadevi, and according to the Chamadevivamsa and Jinakalamali chronicles the city was founded by the hermit Suthep in 661, and the ruler from Lopburi sent his daughter Jamadevi as the first queen. However, this dating is now usually considered wrong, and the actual beginning is now placed at around 750. At that time most of central Thailand was under the rule of Mon city-states, called the Dvaravati kingdom. She gave birth to twins, the older one succeeding her as the ruler of Lamphun, the younger one became ruler of neighbouring Lampang.


Around 750 Queen Regnant Sri Nrpendradevi of Sambhupura(Cambodia)
Also known in later inscriptions as Nrpatindradevi, she was the daughter of Queen Indrani and king Puskarasha. Her husband was Rajendravarman, her cousin and nephew. They had two children, a son named Mahipativarman and a daughter Jayendravallabha.


After circa 750-803 Queen Regnant Jayendrabha of Sambhupura (Cambodia)
Also known as Jayendravallabha, she was the daughter of Queen Nrpendradevi and Rajendravarman. She was married to king Jayavarman II, who established himself as king of Indrapura in 781. Their daughter was Jyestha


Circa 750 Legendary Queen Wanda of Poland
According to legend her father, king Krak was succeeded by one brother, but was killed by another. The Councillors broke with tradition in asking Wanda to rule over her people. Peace and prosperity prevailed over Krakow, but in the west, the Germans grew in strength and began attacking Polish hamlets and cities. The German commander, Rytygier, wanted to make Wanda his wife, and to avoid this and save her people, she wandered to the top of a cliff over the Wisla river, she threw herself into the river. 


751-58 Reigning Dowager Duchess Scaunipirga of Benevento (Italy)
Ruled alone after the death of her son Gisolfo II. 


Circa 772-98 Joint Reigning Queen Cynethryth of Mercia (United Kingdom)
Married to Offa II, the Saxon King of Mercia (757-96), and acquired notoriety as a tyrannical Queen. She was the only Queen consort ever allowed to issue coins in her own name, and they carry vivid portraits, the earliest portrait of an Englishwoman. Her daughter, Eadburgh, acquired a still worse reputation.    


Circa 774 Governor Cara Zon of Carcasson (Spain)
According to legend she was daughter of Abderame, or Ennis-Al-Moumenin, Lord of the Believers, and married to Al-Babel, king of the region of Carcassonne and Narbonne, who was assassinated. To save her life, she had to flee to her town, swearing to take revenge upon her husband’s murderers. She believed that Charles the Great (Charlemagne) was associated with them. She defends the town, first with her men and then alone, but leaving the impression that she still has plenty of men and food, which makes Charles decide to leave, and then a horn blows on top of the walls. Dame Carcas sonne (she blows her horn). Overwhelmed by the satisfaction of seeing such a mighty warrior giving up because of her creative obstinacy is surrendering and presenting to the emperor the keys of her town. She asks to be baptized and is married to one of Charles' vassals named Roger, who gives his name to the illustrious counts of the city. Charlemagne makes it a personal point that the name of the city remains Carcassonne to honour such a great Lady.


775-809 Politically Influential Al-Haizuran of Bagdad (Iraq)
Also known as Khayzuran (literally, Bamboo) she was a slave, born most likely in Yemen, and gained substantial influence during the reigns of her husband, al-Mahdi (775-785), who allowed her to make many important decisions. After his death, it was Khayzuran who kept the peace by paying off the Caliph's army in order to maintain order. She arranged for the accession of her son, al-Hadi, even when he was away from the capitol. When al-Hadi proved less tolerant of Khayzuran's political manoeuvrings than had al-Mahdi, it was speculated that it was Khayzuran who arranged his murder in favour of her second, more tolerant son, Harun. Whatever the truth, Khayzuran is more fondly remembered than many of the caliphs themselves.


779–794 Joint Ruler Empress Shila-Mahadevi of Rashtrakuta (India)
Reigned jointly with her husband, Emperor Dhruva, and had the right to make large grants independently.

A coin where Irene used the title of Basillius, Emperor 780-90 Regent Dowager Empress Eirene of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
787 Presiding over the 7th Ecomenical Synod (Council)
792  Joint Ruler of the Empire
797-802 Reigning Empress
Also known as Irene, she dominated her husband Emperor Leo IV (775-780), and after his death she took over the regency for son, Constantine VI. Irene generally undermined Constantine's authority when he tried to push her aside, she deposed him in 797 - he was seized, flogged and blinded. Irene began her reign as the first Byzantine Empress, and did not recognize Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in 800. After the death of his wife, Liutgard, the same year, Charlemagne sought her hand in marriage - but nothing came out of this proposal. Soon revolts against Irene rule broke out and she was deposed by the leading Patricians. Irene was then exiled to island of Lesbos, where she supported herself by spinning. Irene died the following year and her former finance minister succeeded as Emperor Nicephorus I. She lived (752-803).


Until 783 Politically Active Queen Berta of France

During the reign of her husband, king Pepin, and her son, king Charles the Great, she was especially active in diplomacy.  


783-784 Politically Active Queen Fastrada of France

Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, king Charles the Great, until her death.  


793-circa 810 Regent Kanza of Idrisis of Saghir (Morocco)
Ruled in the name of her son Idris II ibn Idris of Saghir (793-823) who was prince from his birth.


803-34 Queen Regnant Jyestha of Sambhupura (Cambodia)
The daughter of Queen Jayendra[valla]bha and King Jayavarman II, she described herself as Queen of Sambhupura in 803. The next ruler was Jayavarman III (ruled834-877).


806-810 Politically Influential Imperial Consort Fujiwara Kusuko of Japan
In 807 she accused some members of the other branches of the Fujiwara clan of conspiring against her husband, Emperor Heizei. Shortly after the plot, Emperor Heizei retired, citing health problems, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Emperor Saga. When Heizei recovered from his illness, she and others worked to get him reinstated to the throne. In response, Saga dismissed her from her very important administrative post as was Superior of the Ladies-in-Waiting (naishi-no kami), where her duty was to transfer of the emperor's decrees and she had very often formulated the emperor's decrees. The following day she and her husband left the capital and headed east to raise troops and retake the throne. But their uprising quickly failed. Ex-emperor Heizei became a priest, her brother Nakanari was executed and she committed suicide. The incident brought intense scrutiny to the political activities of women in the inner palace. and after this incident, women in the inner palace were unable to publicly engage in politics and receded to the background.


811 Regent Empress Theopano of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey) (26.07-2.10)
A relative of Empress Irene, she had married Staurakios in 807. He was was paralyzed by a sword wound near his neck, and was saved by the imperial guard which retreated from the battlefield during his father's expedition against Krum of Bulgaria in 811. As his father had been killed in the same battle, and he was hastily crowned at Adrianople, and named her as regent, but when he tried to name her as his designated successor, a coup d'etat with the participation of the Patriarch Nikephoros forced him to abdicate and against her protests to name his brother-in-law, Michael Rangabe as the new emperor. He retired to a convent and died a few months later.


811-13 Politically Influential Empress Prokopia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Her husband, Michael I Rhangabe became emperor and she is said to have been a dominant force at court until his abdication. 


818-before 843 Politically Active Empress Judith of the Holy Roman Empire

Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Emperor Ludwig the Devout (778-840), and son, Karl the Bald.


Circa 821-ca- 834 Queen Regnant Åsa Haraldsdottir of Agder  (Norway)
Her small kingom comprised of  Vestfold, Romerike and Vingulmark. According to the sagas of the Yngling clan, she was mother of Halfdan the Black and grandmother of Harald Fairhair. She was daughter of King Harald Granraude of Agder and a reputed beauty. King Gudrød the Hunter of Borre in Vestfold proposed marriage to her after the death of his first wife, but her father refused the marriage. Gudrød Veidekonge then killed her father and her brother, abducted her and married her. One year later, she became the mother of Halfdan the Black. One year after this, Åsa took her revenge and had her servant kill her husband. She left the kingdom of Borre to her stepson Olaf Geirstad-Alf and took her own son with her to the kingdom of Agder, her birth country, where she took power. Åsa ruled Agder for twenty years, and after this she left the throne to her son. He also demanded half of his father's kingdom from his halfbrother. There are theories that queen Åsa is the woman buried with the famous Oseberg ship from 834, but this is not confirmed. She lived (født circa 800 død circa 834)


Before 825 Heiress Esyllt ferch Cynan of the Kingdom of Gwynedd (Wales in the United Kingdom)
Also known as Ethil, she was the heiress of her father, King Cynan        
Dindaethwy of Gwynedd. She was married to king Guriat of Ynys Manaw (Isle of Man). After the death of her uncle in 825, the throne was secured for Merfyn. He crossed from Isle of Man, where he was almost certainly already King, to bring a new stability as well as a new dynasty to Gwynedd after many years of Civil War. He reigned for 19 years but an absentee monarch left Manaw open to invasion. The Hiberno-Viking, Godred mac Fergus established himself there in 836 and the country was never recovered.


Before 825 Regent Dowager Queen Angharad Ferch Maredudd Llewellyn of Powys, Holderness, Skipton and Cockermouth  (Wales and England in the United Kingdom)
Reigned in the name of her son.

829-30 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Euphrosyne of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Daughter of Emperor Constantinos VI who divorced her mother, Maria of Amnia (circa 770-circa 830) and send both of them to a monastery, where they stayed until 820 when Michael II of Amorion usurped the throne and married Euphrosyne in order to legitimize his reign. After his death, she was probably member of the regency council for his son, Theophilos, though the sources are not clear about this. After she helped select his wife, Theodora, she retired to a convent, though she did not stay totally out of politics. She (circa 790-after 840).


832-ca.38 Queen Regnant Pramodo Vardhani of the Mataram Kingdom in Central Java (Indonesia)
Also known as  Pramodawardhani, she succeeded her father Taga Samara-tunga, and was a highly tolerant ruler. She was known to have set aside a plot of land for the construction of a Hindu temple. At the end of Batu Besar War, she build a Linga in KunjaraKunja Hills. Succeeded by her husband, Pikatan, who reigned 838-51. In 835 the Sanjaya Dynasty conquered the island.


Around 837 Reigning Abbess Ermentrude of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

The Abbey was not spared the troubles besetting Kingdom and Church in seventh century Gaul. But there is no document left to shed light on this period. But Ermentrude not only extended the enclosure of the monastery and enlarged the buildings of the community but is also at the origin of the first elements of the village of Jouarre. She organised the cultivation of the lands on the plateau, promoted the creation of the first hospice for the sick and of places of refuge such as the "Pitancerie" for giving food to the poor, for pilgrims and vagrants, and a leper house. And in order to save everybody. At that time too, there was a mint for striking money, by privilege granted by King Charles the Bald. There still today exist a few rare silver coins witnessing to the fact. This was a time of material and spiritual prosperity. However the invading Normans came up the Seine from Paris to the valley of the Marne. Around 887-888, the Vikings devastated the region and, very probably, the abbey. The silence of the archives in the tenth century suggest a long period of extreme poverty and dereliction.

842-56 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
The widow of Theophilos (829-42), she was leader of the regency for her son Michael III (838-42-67). She restored the veneration of icons, brought back the deposed holy Patriarch Meletios and convened a Council, at which the Iconoclasts were anathematized. When Michael came of age, she spent 8 years in the monastery of Saint Euphrosynia, in ascetic deeds and the reading of Divine books (a copy of the Gospels is known of, copied by her hand). She died peacefully in about the year 867. Later declared a saint.

842 Member of the Regency Council Princess Tekla of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Also known as Tecla, she was sister of Michael III, and in theory co-regent with Theodora.

842-52 Joint Ruler Queen Mother Ch'en of Tibet
Reigned jointly with Ch'ilihu in succession to Lang Dharma.


846-85 Ruler Ela Giudit of Aksum (Ethiopia)
Also known as Terda’e Gomaz Yodit, she was grandchild of Demawedem Wechem Asfare (790-820)

Unnamed Indian Queen Around 846 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Tribhuvana Mahadevi I of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)

Used the alternative title Parambhattarika and was member of the Majhapit-Dynasty, which later immigrated to Indonesia. After the death of king Subhakara Deva III, she was asked by the chiefs to ascend the throne. Interestingly she was asked to do this and save the kingdom as Devi Gosvamini did in olden days, indicating that women had ruled before. Married to king Lalitahara (ruled around 829) and was succeeded by king Santikara II. 


848-851 Consors Regni Empress Irmingard de Tours of The Holy Roman Empire

Even though her husband, Lothar I, was only Emperor in parts of the realm (Italy and Burgundy), she held the title of Consors Regni - co-ruler. She was mother of 9 children, and lived (circa 800-851).


851–875 Consors Regni Empress Angilberga de Spoleto of The Holy Roman Empire and Italy

As “consors regni” she officially acted as co–ruler of her husband, Emperor Ludwig II, especially after he was hurt in a hunting accident in 564. She was especially active in her native Italy, and very politically active in the efforts to secure the succession to her husband, since their two daughters were barred from inheriting. After her husband's death, she became Abbess of San Sisto in Piacanzam and lived (circa 825-896/901).

Pope Joan 853-55 Pope John VIII of the Catholic Church
John Anglicus was a ninth century Englishman, who after having stayed in Athens came to lecture at the Trivium in Rome. He became a Cardinal, and when Pope Leo IV died in 853 CE, he was unanimously elected pope. As Pope John VIII he ruled for two years. However, while riding one day from St. Peter's to the Lateran, he had to stop by the side of the road and, to the astonishment of everyone, gave birth to a child. According to one legend, the people of Rome then tied her feet together and dragged her behind a horse while stoning her to death. Another legend has it that she was sent to a far away convent and that her child became Bishop of Ostia. It is not known whether the story of Pope Joan is true. The first known reference to her occurs in the thirteenth century, 350 years after her supposed reign. The Catholic Church at first seemed to accept the reality of Pope Joan. Marginal notes in a fifteenth century document refer to a statue called "The Woman Pope with Her Child" that was supposedly erected near the Lateran. There was also a rumour that for some years the chairs used during papal consecrations had holes in their seats, so that an official check of the pope's gender could be performed. During the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the Catholic Church began to deny the existence of Pope Joan, and modern scholars have been unable to resolve the historicity of Pope Joan/Giovanna/Johanna/Jeanne.

Unnamed Aztec Lady Circa 866-76 Queen Regnant Xiuhtlacuilolxochitzin of Quauhtitlan (Guatemala and Mexico)

The Aztech sources say about her: "In 11 Rabbit the Lady Xiuhtlacuilolxochitzin became ruler, and she had her straw-house in Tianquiztenco. Where it was is now Tepexitenco. And the reason the nation had been left to this Lady, they say, is that she was Huactli’s wife-also she knew how to invoke the devil Itzpapalotl.”   


877-79 Presiding over the Court Queen Engelberge of the Franks
Played a prominent role during the reign of her husband, King Louis II of the Franks (846-77-79), who was succeeded by two of their sons, Louis III (863-79-82) and Carloman. Engelberge (d. 890). 


884-97 Politically Influential Imperial Consort Shukushi of Japan
Adopted sister of the Fujiwara-regent and de-facto ruler, Mototsunes. It was apparently her influnence that secured the succession of Emperor Kōkō (884-887). She was mother of the later Emperor Uda (887-897), whose succession to the throne she also made possible.

Tribhuvana Mahadevi II

After 885 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Tribhuvana Mahadevi II of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
Also known as prthvi Mahadevi, she was the widow of Subhakara and was ousted by King Santikara III.

Korean Queen 887-897 Queen Regnant Chinsong Yo Ju of Silla (Korea)
Also known as Chinsong Yowang, she succeeded brother. Unlike the previous Queens, she ruled during an era of decline. Local warlords were increasing in power and Chinsong was unable to collect the taxes needed for a central army Most of her reign was spent in putting down rebellions One of the warlords managed a successful rebellion against her.


887-96 Regent Countess Dowager Ermengarde of Provence (France)
In 876, she married Boso V, Count of Vienne, who declared himself King of Provence in 879. In May 878 they sheltered Pope John VIII, who was taking refuge from the Saracens, in Arles. After her husband's coup d'état in October 879, she helped defend his cities from her Carolingian relatives. In 880, she successfully defended Vienne itself, the capital, from the combined forces of Charles the Fat and the kings of France, Louis III and Carloman. In August 881, the newly-crowned Emperor Charles the Fat pillaged and burned Vienne, focing her and her children to take refuge in Autun with her brother-in-law Richard, Duke of Burgundy. Meanwhile, Boso fled into Provence. On Boso's death in January 887, the Provençal barons elected her to act as regent for her son Louis II, with the support of Richard. In May, she travelled with her son Louis to the court of Charles the Fat, and received his recognition of the young Louis as king. Charles adopted Louis as his son and put both mother and son under his protection. In May 889, she travelled to Charles' successor, Arnulf, to make submission anew. She was daughter of Louis II (822/4-75), king of Italy (844), Holy Roman Emperor (850) and count of Provence (863-69). She (d. 896/96).


891 Regent Dowager Queen Hint bint Isaq of Tihama (Arabia)
Together with three others she was regent for Abd' Allah (981-1018).


894 Politically Influential Dowager Queen Ageltrudes di Benevento in Italy
After the death of her husband, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy, Wido di Spoleto (or Guy),  Ageltrude supported her son, Lamberto (circa 880-94-98), against other claimants and helped him gain control over most of Italy and actively encouraged him in opposing her archenemies, the Carolingians. In 894, she accompanied him to Rome to be confirmed as emperor by Pope Formosus, who supported the Carolingian claimant Arnulf of Carinthia. In 896, she and her son were held up in Spoleto when Arnulf marched into Rome and was crowned in opposition to her son. Arnulf was soon paralysed by a stroke and Formosus died, she quickly interfered to assert her authority in Rome and have elected her candidate as Pope Stephen VI. At her and Lamberto's request, the body of Formosus was disinterred and tried, convicted and hurled into the Tiber in the Cadaver Synod. (d. 923).


Around 900-after 915 Senatrix Theodora I of  Rome (Italy)
Married to senator Theopylakt and very influential in Rome. She installed the popes Lando (913-14) and John X, whom she controlled. Mother of Marozias I and Theodora II.


Around 900 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Gauri Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
King Santikara III (Subha Kara Devi) was succeeded by Subhakara V who was married to Gauri Mahadevi and Vakula Mahadevi. Gauri Mahadevi was succeeded by her daughter Dandi Mahadevi and Dandi Mahadevi conquered the throne.


Around 900 Reigning Queen of Orissa (India)
Elected as ruler after the death of her son, Lolitabharana Deva.


900 Governor Revvaka Nammadi of Edatore (India)
A Princess of Rashtrakuta.


902-04 Regent Sugandha Rani of Utpala (India)
904-14 Rani Regnant
Initially regent for Gopala Varman (902-04) and Samkata Varman (904) until she became ruler in her own name. She allied herself with the Ekangas in order to maintain her control of Kashmir as a whole. In 914 a clash between the two Factions, her forces were defeated, leaving the Tantrins in complete control, and her deposed.


908-32 Politically Influential Shaghab of Baghdad (Iraq)

Successful in maneuvering the religious and military elite into recognizing her only 13-year-old son, Muqtadir, as caliph. She had originally been a slave.

911-918 Sovereign Lady Æthelflæd of Mercians (United Kingdom)

Also known as Ethelfleda, Eþeleda, Aethelfled, Æthelfleda or Æthelflæd, she became ruler after her husband, Aethelred or Ethelred, Earl of Mercia, died after the Battle of Tettenhall, she became ruler of the territory. She was a formidable military leader and tactician. She ruled for five years from the newly fortified capital at Stafford, and under her reign, it is likely that the English county of Staffordshire first came into being. She fortified her existing borders and re-took Derby. She died in 918, and is buried at Gloucester. She was joint lady of the Mercians along with her young daughter Aelfwynn, who was later deposed by King Edward the Elder, Æthelflæd's brother. She was daughter of King Alfred of Wessex and lived (872-918).

914-919 Regent Dowager Empress Zoë Karbonopsina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
The fourth wife of Leon IV, who died 912. After his death the guardian of her son, but Constantinos VII (b. 905) sent her to a convent. She later managed to become regent for son, but was deposed in 919. 


915-16 Regent Dowager Margravine Bertha of Lothringa of Lucca, Torino and Piemont and Tuscia (Toscana) (Italy)
Her first husband was Thibaut d'Arles and with him she had Hugh II of Italy. Her second husband was Adalbert II of Toscana, and after his death, she was regent for their son, Guido. She was daughter of Lothair II, King of Lotharingia and his mistress, Waldrada, and lived (863-925).


915-circa 19 Regent Dowager Countess Alberada of Hainault (Belgium)
After the death of her second husband, Reginar I Langhals of Hainault, she was regent for son Reginar II (circa 895-after 932). Her first husband seems to have been Duke of Lorraine, with whom she had a daughter. Alberada (d. after 919).


916-23 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Dandi Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
Succeeded mother and was succeeded by her stepmother Vakula Mahadevi, who ruled until circa 950.


918-20 Sovereign Lady Ælfwyn of Mercians (United Kingdom)
Also known as Aelfwynn, she succeeded her mother, Lady Æthelflæd. Chroniclers have noticed the right of Aelfwynn so precisely as to leave no doubt concerning her claim; and this fact is of considerable value in showing that, contrary to the practice of other Teutonic nations, the sovereign authority amongst the Anglo-Saxons might descend to a female. But her uncle, King Edward of Wessex, occupied the town and received the submission of the Mercians, and in December of the same year, he deprived her "of all authority among the Mercians" and took her away to Wessex, where she seems to have spent the rest of her life in a nunnery. (d. 1007?).


Around 920 Sovereign Dame Ava of Auvergne (France)
Married to Geoffroy II de Gastinas, she lived (895-942).

921 Regent Dowager Duchess Ludmila of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Widow of Prince Borivoj, the first Christian ruler of the area. She raised her oldest grandson, Wenceslas as a Christian, and her daughter-in-law raised the younger, Boleslav, as a pagan. After the death of her son, Bratislav I, the anti-Christian Faction attempted to seize control, but she urged Wenceslas, who was around 13, to take power in the name of Christianity. She acted as regent, but her daughter-in-law, Drahomira, had her strangled. She became a martyr and was later declared a saint.


921-22 Reigning Dowager Duchess Drahomira von Stöder of Bohemia
926-28 Regent of the Duchy
A non-Christian, she was widow of Bratislav I, she became regent for son, Wenceslaus, after having had his grandmother, Ludmilla, strangled. A civil war broke out between the Christian and non-Christian factions. Drahomira continued as regent for a couple of years, and (d. 935).


922-33 Sovereign Countess Andregoto Galíndez de Galicia of Aragón (Spain)
Succeeded her father Galindo II Aznar. Caliph Abd al-Rahman III forced her husband, King García III Sanchez of Navarra to repudiate her under the peace terms negotiated with Sunyer Conde de Barcelona in 940, as part of his strategy of dividing the alliances between the various Christian kingdoms and counties in the peninsula. 


923-934 Politically Influential Queen Emma of France
Very politically active and an army leader during the reign of her husband king Raoul of Bourgogne (921-36). She was daughter of Robert I, Count and Paris (892-93) and King of France (922-23) and his first wife, Aeis. Their only son died young, and she (d. 934).

Empress Wei Shi 926 Regent Dowager Empress Shulü Hatun of Qidan (China and of Mongolia) 
Also known as Khatun Shu-lü Shih of Purtmish. She was married to the founder of the Khitan state was A-buo-qi (872-926), later known as Emperor Taizu of the Liao, who reigned (907-26). She helped him ambush and murder the other chiefs when they went to buy salt from his Chinese "tribes". She had been a great power during her husband’s lifetime. Early in his reign, she had devised a plan for him to murder some of the tribal chiefs who opposed him. Later she established her own military camp, commanded her own army of 200.000 horsemen with which she maintained order when A-buo-qi was away on campaign and even organized campaigns against rival tribes. After his death, she took control of all military and civil affairs. When the time of his internment came, she refused to be buried with him according to custom although more than 300 persons were buried in his mausoleum. She disapproved of the choice of their oldest son, Bei, as Emperor and managed to set him aside in favour of her other son, Deguang (902-47). She acted as regent and remained in firm control and exercised great influence for many years to come. After Deguangs death in 947, Bei’s eldest son, Yelu Yuan (918-51), declared himself emperor, but she opposed this and supported the claim of her third son, Lihu. She sent her youngest son with an army to block Yuan’s return to the capital. When the army was defeated, the old lady led her own army to confront her grandson, the new emperor.


926-28 Senatrix Theodora II of Rome and Umbria (Italy)
Succeeded husband. Very powerful in the Papal State as the mistress of Pope John X (914–28). Succeeded by daughter Senatrix Marozia, whose son by Pope Sergius III became Pope John XI in 928.


927-30 Regent Dowager Queen Oneca de Navarra of León (Spain)
Ruled in the name of her son, Alfonso IV (926-31) who abdicated.


928-32/37 Senatrix Marozia I of Rome and Umbria (Italy)
Daughter of the Roman consul Theophylact and his wife Theodora II, Marozia was strongly influenced by her mother who controlled Roman politics and the papacy in what has been called the “pornocracy.” The mistress of Pope Sergius III (904–11), Marozia married, in succession, Albert I of Spoleto (d. 926), Guido of Tuscany (d. 929), and Hugh of Provence, to help maintain her political control. Marozia received the titles “senatrix” and “patricia” from her mother's lover Pope John X (914–28); she nevertheless had him put to death in 928 in order to install her favourite candidates in papal office (including one of her sons as Pope John XI; 931–35). In 932, Albert II of Spoleto, a son of her first marriage, who had her imprisoned until her death, overthrew Marozia. She lived (892–ca.937).

929-46 Metropolitana Editha of England of Magdeburg (Germany)
Given Magdeburg as her dowry after the marriage to Otto I, Duke of Sachsen and Thuringen (936-73) and King of Germany (936-62), of Italy (961-73) and Emperor (962-73). Also known as Eadgyth, Edgith or Edgitha, she was daughter of Edmund I of Wessex, King of England (939-46) and St. Elgiva, and mother of 2 sons and 1 daughter. (d. 946).


Until 931 Co-Regent Margravine Ermengard di Lucca of Ivrea (Italy)
Daughter of Adalbert II of Tuszia and Berta, illegitimate daughter of king Lothar II.  As co-regent she secured the Italian throne for her brother, Hugo d’Arle, against the claims of Raoul II de Haute-Bourgogne. 


933-circa 39 Regent Dowager Princess Toda Nzhar Aznárez of Pamplona (Spain)
Named as "domna Tota regina" in the Codex de Roda. After the death of her husband, King Sancho II García of Navarre, her brother-in-law, Jimeno García, first became regent son for her son, García III Sänchez (circa 919-970). When he died 931 he was followed by Íñigo García, but in 933 she forced him out and installed herself as regent. Caliph Abd al-Rahman III invaded Navarre once more in 934, obliging her to submit to Córdoba, release Muslim hostages and break with the other Christian kingdoms of the peninsula, although her son was recognised as king by the caliph. She broke the peace unilaterally in 937, but was defeated once more by the Muslims. She then allied herself with Ramiro II King of León and Fernán González Conde de Castilla, their combined forces defeating the caliph's troops at Alhandega/al-Khandaq, near Simancas in 939. She was daughter of Aznar Sánchez de Larraún and Oneca Íñiga Fortún de Pamplona, who had first been married to the later Abd Allah I of Córdoba, and who was daughter of Fortún García, King of Pamplona. She lived (circa 855-after 970).


934 Hereditary Countess Arsinde of Carcasconne and Razes (France)
Her husband Arnaud de Comminges became count after her father, Acfred III's death

936-66 "Regent" Queen Mathilda of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Widow of Emperor Heinrich I; she was also Head of the Chapters of Winithusen, Nordhausen, Richeberg and Pölden. Later declared a saint. (d. 968).


Around 940 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Vakula Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
Second widow of Santikara III, she succeeded stepdaughter, Dandi Mahadevi, and was succeeded by Dharma Mahadevi another widow of Santikara - III.


Until 942 Hereditary Duchess Ermengarde II of Basse-Bourgogne (France) 
The daughter of Richard le Justicier, Duke of Burgundy (952), she married her cousin married Gilbert de Chalon (circa 900-56), count d'Atun, Chalon, Beaune et Dijon in 938. Mother of two daughters who divided the inheritance. Liégarde became Duchesse de Bourgogne and Adélaide Countess d'Auxerre etc. in circa 956 Ermengarde lived (circa 905-42).

Grand Duchess Olga 945-55 Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Olga of Kiev and Novgorod (Russia)
Took over the government for son Svyatoslav after the murder of her husband, Grand Duke Igor I, in 945. In 957, she was baptized while on a trip to Constantinople. Although she worked hard to persuade other Russians to adopt her new faith, the mass conversion of Russians to Christianity did not occur until after   the baptism in 988 of her grandson, Grand Prince Vladimir. Later declared a saint, she lived (circa 890-969).

945-59 Co-ruler Empress Helena Lecapena of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Married to Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitu (913-59), who raised her father, Romanus Lecapenus, to the rank of Cesar and the status of co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire and actual ruler of the state. In 944 two sons deposed him, but they were executed, and finally Constantine took over the reigns himself - though with heavy guidance from Helena. She retired to a convent after her husband's death, to please his son, Romanus, who was under the spell of his wife, Theophano. 


946-55 Politically Influential Dowager Queen Edgiva of England
Also known as Eadgifu, she was a dominant force during the reign of her son Edred (924-46-46), who came on the throne when his older brother, Edmund the Magnificent was murdered in 946. She was the third wife of King Edward of Wessex (circa 871-88-924). She was daughter of Sigehelm, Ealdrman of Kent, mother of 4 children, and lived (905-68)


947-circa 75 Regent Dowager Sri Isanatunggavijaya of East Java
Succeeded father, Mpu Sindok (929-47).


949 Hereditary Duchess Ida of Schwaben (Germany)
Heiress of her father Hermann I von Schwaben and Regilinda, she was married to Liudolf, the son of Emperor Otto I, who became Duke of Swabia. Mother of Duke Otto I of Bavaria and Schwabia and Abbess Mathilde of Essen (949-965-1011). Ida was German first Lady after the death of Queen Egith until Otto I married Adelheid of Bourgogne, and lived (circa 932/34-86).


From circa 949 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Dharma Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
The third widow of Santikara III to rule the kingdom, she was the last ruler of Bhaumkara dynasty, which came under the grip of Somavamsis, and later migrated to Indonesia.

Jelena of Croatia

Circa 949-76 Politically Influential Queen Jelena Slavna of Croatia
Influential both during the reign of her husband, Mihovil Kresimir II, and of her son, Stjepan Drzislav (969-997). In the decription on her tomb-stone it says that she managed to obtain peace in the kingdom "...she who, during her lifetime, was the mother of the kingdom, has now become the mother of the poor and the Protectress of widows. When thou looketh here, o man, say: Lord, have mercy on her soul!" (949-969).

Coin of Rani Didda 950-58 De-facto Ruler Rani Didda of Kashmir, Yassakara and Parvagupta (India)
958-80/81 Regent Dowager Rani
981-1004 Rani Regnant
Took part in the government during the whole reign of her husband Kshmagupta, and afterwards she was regent for her son Abhimanyu, and thereafter sole ruler in her own right after killing her three grandsons. She eventually handed over the throne to her maternal family from Lohara in undisputed, peaceful succession. Didda was able to transform herself from a comparatively unsure and politically naive persona into a ruthless, decisive and ambitious one, and her alternate bribe-and-placation policy helped in quelling rebellions.


Around 950 Queen Regnant Gokare of Kuba (Congo)
Settlers gradually drifted into the Kuba region between 1000 and 1500, initially forming small communities. 

Unnamed Ethiopian Around 950 Queen Regnant Yehudit of the Falasha Agaw (Ethiopia)
Also known as Yodit, Esato or Judith, she attacked the Christian southern provinces of Ethiopia as far as the mountains of Tigre around 975. The Ethiopians saw her invasion as a punishment for having failed to be obedient to their Coptic patriarch. While the Agaw held power, the Amhara and Tegre culture entered a "dark age" about which little is known, and a large part of the Ethiopian civilization was lost or destroyed during this time.

954-circa 59 Regent Dowager Queen Gerberga von Sachsen of France
In 939 her first husband, Duke Giselbert of Lorraine, died and she married Louis IV of France, who also became ruler of Lorraine in spite of the opposition from her brother-in-law Hugo of Francien, husband of her sister, Hadwig. In 954 Louis died, and she managed to secure the election of her son, Lothar III as king of France and she took over the regency. The contemporary sources describe her as a highly educated, intelligent and forceful player in the political game of the time. Mother of around 10 children, she lived (913-69). 


954-55 and 976-77 Countess Regnant Gunnhilda Erlandsdatter of Orkney (United Kingdom)
Reigned jointly with Ragnfred (954-55), Godfred (955-57) and Thorfinn I Skullsplitter (circa 957-77). For six hundred years Orkney was dominated by the Norse, initially invaders and then settlers from Western Norway, who rapidly colonized the islands and then went on to build the Earldom which at its peak controlled much of the west coast of Scotland, the Isle of Man, Caithness and Sutherland. 


955-66 Regent Dowager Duchess Judith of Bavaria (Germany)
Daughter of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria. Married to Heinrich, a son of Heinrich I of Germany, who became duke of Bavaria in 948. After his death, she was regent for their son, Heinrich II using the title of Dux et Domina or Dux dominaque. 966-74 she was on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and afterwards she retired to the Chapter of Niedermünster in Regensburg. (d. after 985). 


956-58 Regent Dowager Duchess Hadwig von Sachsen of Francia (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Hugo of Francia/Franzien, she was in charge of the Robertine Inheritance. In 957 she aided her brother, Brun of Köln in his fight against Reginar III von Haiault. She was daughter of King Heinrich I and Mathilde. 


956-87 Sovereign Countess Adélaïde I Wéra de Chalon of Auxerre Chalons-sur-Saône and Beaune (France)

Adelaide was daughter of Gilbert de Chalon and Ermengarde II de Bourgogne. She first married to Robert I de Vermandois (circa 910-967), Comte de Meaux, comte d'Auxerre et de Chalon and secondly Lambert de Chalon (ca.930-979) comte de Chalon et d'Autun (circa 945). Her sister, Liégarde inherited Bourgogne. Adélaide Wéra lived (circa 928-89).


Around 956 Hereditary Countess Liégarde de Vergy of Bourgogne (France)

Heiress of her mother, Ermengarde II de Bourgogne, and her husband, Eudes of France, became Duke of Bourgogne. They did not have any children. Her sister, Adélaide inherited Auxerre and Chalons.


Around 959 Senatrix Marozia II of Rome (Italy)
Daughter of Theodora II (sister of Marozia I). Before the death of Prince Albericht II she does not appear to have used the title, because he wanted to be the only one with the title of senator. Married to Theophylakt and mother of Gregorio I, Count of Tuskulum.  


960-64 and 1103-11 Countess Tota Ramon of Pallars-Ribagorza (Spain)

Co-regent with Isaro in the first period - in the second she ruled alone. 


961-62 De-facto in charge of the Government Dowager Empress Mathilde von Sachsen of Germany

Had withdrawn to the convent of Quedlinburg which she founded after the death of her husband, King Heinrich I in 936, but took over the reigns in Germany when her son, Otto I, went to Italy after having appointed his infant son, the later Otto II as regent. She had devoted her time to charity and founder of numerous convents and she was later declared a saint (Mathilde die Heilige). She was mother of 3 sons and 2 daughters (among whom Geberga was regent in the West-Frankish kingdom from 954), and lived (circa 895-968).


963-69 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Very powerful during the reign of her husband, Emperor Romanos II (959-63) and regent for sons Basileios II and Constantinos VIII. Married to the Field Marshall Nikephoros Phokas, who was emperor 963-69. He was deposed by Jean Tzimikskes who married Theodora, daughter of Theophano.


966-75 Regent Doña Elvira Ramírez of León and Asturias (Spain)
The daughter of Ramiro II, she left the convent take over the regency for her nephew, Ramiro III, after the death of her brother, Sancho I. She made treaties with Caliph Al-Hahen II and organised the defence against the Normans In 968-69. In 975 her sister-in-law, the Dowager Queen Teresa, replaced her as regent.

Princess-Abbess Mathilde

966-99 Princess-Abbess Mathilde I von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
997-99 Guardian of the Realm of the Holy Roman Empire

Daughter of Emperor Otto I, she was appointed the first Princess-Abbess - Reichsäbtissin - of Quedlinburg. She also acted as "domina imperialis", and followed her brother Otto II on journey to Italy and acted regent with the title of Matica (Reichsverweserin) for her nephew, Otto III during his stay in Italy. She was also named as his representative in Sachsen with the additional titles of Metropolitana of Quedlinburg and Matrixcia of Sachsen (Substitute and Representative of the Emperor). She lived (955-999). 


967-84 Politically Influential Dowager Empress Anshi of Japan
After the death of her husband, Emperor Murakami she was very influential during the reign of her sons, and was the mother of the Tennos Reizei (967-969) and En-yu (969-984).


Until 970 Sovereign Princess Alan-Goa of the Hori-Tumat Dynasty in Mongolia
Succeeded by Prince Bodonchar.

A 10th century Queen 973-75 Joint Ruler Queen Ælfthryth of England
978-84 Regent Dowager Queen
Sources indicated that after her consecration she was considered to been sharing the royal lordship with her husband, King Edgar, who was first succeeded by his son of the first marriage, Edward, then by a brother, and finally by his son by Ælfthryth, Edmund II Ironside (968-78-1016), and was in charge of the government during his minority, and continued to be a dominant force after he came of age.


973-1021 Sovereign Countess Adela van Hamaland (The Netherlands)
Oldest daughter of the rich and powerful count Wichman II van Hamaland (Achterhoek), who ruled (952-973) and first married to Immed (d. circa 983), who was either a Count or Noble from Utrecht, with whom she had 5 children. After his death she continued to rule and made coins in her own name - it is not clear if she did it in the function as regent for her son Dirk. Her father had granted much of the family possessions to the Women's Chapter of Elten, where her oldest sister Liutgard became the first Abbess.. In 973 the Emperor made it an Abbey of the Realm, just as Quedlinburg, Essen en Gandersheim and it was placed directly under the protection of the Emperor and it was granted immunity from the jurisdiction of the count and local potentates. But Adela was determined to make sure that her part of the inheritance did not also fall into the hand of the church and she engaged in a fight with her sister and after her death around 995 with the Chapter. Her marriage to Balderik (d. 1021) had the purpose of getting back the part of her inheritance that had fallen to the Abbey. And in 996 it did come to the redistribution of a large number of lands. But she was not content. Just after the death of Otto III she and Balderik occupied the territory of Elten for the second time, but had to leave it on the command of Emperor Henrik II. She was blamed for the murder of Wichman van Vreden; one of their most important opponents, her husband escaped and her castle was put under siege. She was allowed to escape with her possessions before it was set on fire. She lived (circa 952 –after 1021)


973-84 Politically Influential Duchess Hadwig of Swabia
973-94 Reigning Dowager Lady of her Dowries in Swabia (Germany)

After the death of her husband Burchard III in 973, she continued to be called "Dux" in the Imperial decrees and remained influential in the Duchy and her dowry lands though out the reigns of the next two dukes. She donated large sums to the neigboring convents and had close contact with her sister, Abbess Gerberga II. of Gandersheim and her brother, Heinrich of Bavaria, who made several attempts to take over the Duchy of Swabia until his final defeat in 784, which also meant the end of her political influence. Daughter of Duke Heinrich I. of Bavaria and Judith, the sister of the Frankish king Otto I, she had no children and lived (938/939/940/945-994).


975-80 Regent Dowager Queen Teresa Ansúrez of León and Asturias (Spain)
The widow of Sanchos I, she replaced her sister in law, Princess Elvira as regent for son, Ramiros II, after his troops was beaten by the Arab forces by Gormaz in 975. From 977 the kingdom was systematically attacked by al Mansur, and in 981 Ramiros was deposed after a riot, and replaced by Vermundo II in Asturias, and was now only king in Leon until he was deposed here too, and killed.


976-86 Regent Subh of Cordova (Spain)
Also known as Sabiha Malika Qurtuba or Sobeida, and was born as a Christian with the name of Aurora, she was concubine of Caliph Hakam, and de-facto ruler during his reign, since he, especially during his later years, retreated to religious contemplation. After his death ruled in the name of their son, Hishram Ibn al Hakram. In 966 she appointed Ibn 'Amir was her secretary and in 976 she appointed him Hajib - chief of viziers. In 997 he ended up deposing her from influence.  


Around 976 Politically Influential Dowager Queen of Persia (Iran)

Together with vizier Abu'l-Husain 'Abd-Allah ibn Ahmad 'Utbi, she assisted her son, Nuh II ibn Mansur, of the Samanid Dynasty (d. 997) who ascended to the throne as a youth.


978-94 Queen Gurandukht of Abkhazia (Georgia)
Ascended to the throne after the death of Theodosius III the Blind and reigned jointly with king Bagrat III Bagrationi the Unifier (King of Georgia 1008-14) of the mountainous district along the east coast of the Black Sea.


978-87 Regent Dowager Duchess Beatrx von Franzien of Upper Lorraine (France)
Not very politically active during the reign of her husband, Friederich, but after his death she took over the regency for her son, Dietrich I as "Dux" of Lotharingia. After the death of Otto II she supported the Empresses Adelheid and Theophano and the candidature of the minor Otto III against other candidates and as reward her younger son, Adalberto vas first named Bishop of Verdun and the of Metz. 985 she participated in the "Colloquium dominarum" in Metz together with Queen Emma of France, the German Empresses and her sister-in-law, Adelheid, the wife of Hugo Capets, and Heinrich dem Zänker, which settled the dispute conserning Lorraine. From  teil. Die Zusammenkunft bezweckte einen Ausgleich der Spannungen und Auseinandersetzungen in und um Lothringen. For the rest of her time in office, she was very engaged in diplomatic activites with France and the Empire.


978/80-92 Politically Active Princess Oda of Poland 

Second wife of prince Mieszko I. After his death in 992 she fought for the power for her 3 sons (Mieszko, Lambert and Świętopełk) with her stepson, Bolesław I Chrobry. She lost. Since 992 she lived in Germany. Some historians suggested, that Mieszko appointed her in 992 a regent. She lived (955-1023).

Empress Duong Van Nga, Dinh Bo Linh or Duong Thai Hau

979-80 Regent Dowager Empress Duong Thai Hau of Vietnam
Dương Vân Nga or Đinh Bộ Linh allied herself with the mandarin in charge of military affairs Le Hoan as her son Dinh Phe De (Đinh Phế Đế) succeeded to the throne and the Chinese Song army approached the Vietnamese boarder. Le quickly became her lover and they set up a scenario which resulted in downgrading the young king and promoting Le Hoan to the throne as Emperor Le Dai Hanh and soon demonstrated his capacity as an intelligent leader and a talented politician and ruled until 1005.


Circa 980-1000 Queen Regnant Gudit of Bani al-Hamusa of Demot (Ethiopia)
Attacked the Aksumite Dynasty ruling Ethiopia. She was probably Jewish. It is not quite clear where Bahi al-Hamusa was situated, but it was described as south of the Nile and South-west of Shava.  


980-1027 Politically Influential Empress Fujiwara Senshi of Japan
One of the most influential actors in court life, and favored her brother Michinaga over other contenders for the post, for the position of regent after her son, Ichijo, became Emperor.


981 Regent Hint bint Ishaq of Thama (Arabia)
Today Thama is a city on the coast of Saudia Arabia in the Arab Gulf.


981-991 Regent Dowager Duchess Aloara of Benevento and Capua (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Pandolfo II, she reigned in the name of their son, Pandolfo II (981-1014). She lived (circa 930-993).

Chinese lady 982-1003 Queen Regnant Xiao Shi of Qidan (China and of Mongolia) 
Also known as Yanyan, Yeye, Xiao, Xiaotaihou, Xiao-niangniang or Chengtian, she was influential during the reign of her husband, the Khan Ye-lu Hsien (969-1009) and first regent for their son, son Ye-lu Lung Su,  (b. 971) In 986 the kingdom was attacked by the army of the emperor T'ai-tsung of China, but the general Ye-lu Hipu-ko defeated the Chinese and threw the retreating troops into the Sha River. In 989 the Chinese again tried to overcome the Qidans but were defeated. She was an excellent civil administrator and a military commander with her own army with 10.000 cavalry. Even when she was over 60 in 1005 she commanded armies in the field against the Song remained influential until her death. She lived (932-1009).

                  983 Regent Dowager Empress Adelheid in Italy
985-94 Regent of the Holy Roman Empire
Empress Adelheid As the widow of Duke Lothar of Burgundy, she married to Otto I at the age of 20. He let her control the lands she brought into the marriage, and even added some he owned. In 976 and 985 she Presided over the hearings of the Royal Court in Italy. When her husband died, she became regent for her son Otto II, who included her in his decrees, arriving at decisions "with the advice of my pious and dearest mother." After her son's death she became joint regent with her daughter-in-law, Theophano, for the 3 year old, Otto III, and after Theophano died, Adelaide became sole regent. After he came of age at the age of 14, she lived in a nunnery using the title "Adelheida, by God's gift Empress, by herself a poor sinner and God's maidservant”. She lived (931-999)


Empress Theophano 983-91 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of the Holy Roman Empire
A Byzantine Princess who at the age of seventeen was given to the young Saxon emperor Otto II and crowned Coimperatrix as the only German Empress and Consors Regni. Though elegant and a delicate beauty, she was high-spirited and a superb politician who brought with her an intimate knowledge of the intricacies of court life. When her husband died, leaving her with a three-year-old son, she took the title "Imperator Augustus" and defended her son Otto III’s title for seven years from those who challenged him. For seven years Theophano with tact and firmness administered the empire in her son's name. A contemporary called her "a woman of discreet and firm character...with truly masculine strength." Sometimes she used the male title "imperator Augustus, and lived (ca.955-991)


984-89 Queen Sri Vijayamahadevi of Bali (Indonesia)
Succeeded by the joint rulers King  Dharmaudayanavarmadewa (989-1011) and Queen Gunapriyadharmapatni (989-1007).


985-1016 Politically Influential Princess Kunadavai of Chola (India)
Influential during the reign of her brother, king Rajaraja I (985-1016). Her intelligence and goodness inspired so much respect among the people that they called her Ilayapirathi. Later in history we will also know her as a woman who brought up Rajarajan's son, King Rajendra Chola, and inspired him to achieve greatness.


986-87 Regent Dowager Queen Emma of France
Daughter of Lothaire III of Italy and Germany and Adélaide who later married Otto I of Germany. Emma took over the regency after the death of her husband King Lothaire as guardian for son Louis V, who was king from 26th of march 986 till 18th May the following year.


987-1003 Regent Dowager Countess Rozala-Suzanna d'Ivera of Flanderes/Vlaanderen (Belgium)
Her first husband was Roy Robert II de Cabet, and the second Arnulf van Vlaanderen (Flanders). Regent for son Boudewijn IV. She lived (circa 955-1003).

987-96 Joint Ruler Queen Alais d'Aquitaine of France
Also known as Adèle, she was married to Hugues Capet, and reigned jointly with him, and after his death 996 she also seems to have played a political role during the beginning of the reign of her son, Robert II. She was daughter of Guillaume II and Adèle de Normandie, and lived (circa 945-1004/06).


988-1047 Sovereign Countess Adelise I d'Anjou I of Soissons (France)
Also known as Adelaide, she took over the reigns after the death of her husband, Guy I, and lived (968-1047).


989-1007 Queen Regnant Guanpriyadharmapatni of Bali (Indonesia)
Joint ruler with King  Dharmaudayanavarmadewa (989-1011).


Until circa 992 Sovereign Countess Mathilde of Chiny (Belgium)
Until his death in 982, she ruled jointly with Arnold I Lahngau and 971-1013 with Otto I de Warcq.


993-1005 Regent Dowager Countess Liudgard von Luxembourg of Holland and Westfriesland (The Netherlands)
Widow of Arnulf and in charge of the regency for son Dirk III. She wad daughter of Siegfried of Luxembourg and Hadwig, sister of Empress Kunigunde. She lived (960/65-1005).

Uracca Férnandez, Princess of Castilla, Regent of Aragon and Navarra

994-circa 1004 Regent Dowager Queen Urraca Fernández de Castilla of the County of Aragón
1004-circa 07 Member of the Regency Council of Navarra
After the death of her third husband, Sancho II of Pamplona, her oldest son, García Sánchez II, granted the County of Aragon to the younger, Gonzalo, under her regency. After García's death she became member of the Navarrese Regency together with her sister-in-law, Jimena Fernández and the local bishops, his mother Jimena, for her gandson Sancho III. Urraca had first been married to Ordoño III of León and had 2, and possibly 3 children before their divorce in 956, she secondly married  Ordoño IV, who died in 960 and 10 years later she marreid her last husband and had about 4 children with him. She (d. 1007).


995-1040 Sovereign Countess Adélaide de France of Auxerre (France)
Granddaughter of Hugues le Grand, in succession to his illegitimate son, Herbert. Reigned jointly with husband, Renaud I de Nevers, who died 1040. From then on to 1060 the county was occupied by Burgundy. 


995 Possible Regent Dowager Queen Gunhild of Poland of Sweden 

It is not known for certain that she was actually the wife of King Erik, who might have been married to Sigrid Storråda, but she might have acted as regent for son, king Olof Skötkonung. Since 996 she was possibly married to Svend Forkbeard king of Denmark and political active until their divorce in 1000. In 996 she lead to an alliance between Denmark and Sweden. Daughter of prince of Poland Mieszko I and Dobrawa, she was originally named Princess Świętosława–Sygryda, mother of several children with both husbands, and lived (968/72-after 1014).  

Unidentified picture of a German Queen

996-1001 Consors Imperii Sophie von Sachsen of the Holy Roman Empire
1001-39 Reigning Abbess of Gandersheim, Abbess of Essen and Vreden

Daughter of Otto II, and joined the Chapter of Gandersheim at the age of four, and aided her brother, Otto III in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire, 994 she took part in the Reichstag of Sohlingen, and went with him to Rome in 996, and she actually functioned as the First Lady at Court, as "Consors Imperii". After Otto's death she and her sister, Abbess Adelheid of Quedlinburg participated in the "Assembly of the Great of Sachsen" in the Pfalz Werla, which chose their cousin, Heinrich IV of Bayern as the new king under the name of Heinrich II, and they both took part in his coronation. She had been elected Abbess in 1001 but was in dispute with the Bishop of Hillesheim. Also Heinrich's successor, Konrad, made contact with the two Princesses after his election because of their high rank and stature in the Empire. Sophie was also Abbess of Essen and Vreden. She lived (975-1039).


997-1009 Regent Dowager Queen Honae of Korea
The widow of King Kongjong, who ruled 975-981, she was in charge of the government when her son, Mokjong came to the throne after the death of king Songjong. She established many government offices for showing the royal family’s dignity and improved various institutions, such as protection privilege, enfeoffment and the land system. She also pursued independent and practical diplomacy, and consolidated national defense by building castles and reorganizing the military system. Her policies strengthened sovereign power and centralism. Although her regency inherited the policy of the preceding king, it did not adapt to the need to follow Chinese politics and maintained the unique qualities of the Koryo Dynasty. Since her son did not have a successor, she wanted to bear another heir to the throne, and she had as son with her relative, Kim-Ch’iyang, whom she wanted to succeed Mokjong. She therefore tried to kill the legal successor, Prince Daeryangwon (the later King Honjong, who 1084–1097). But many bureaucrats were opposed to her and supported Prince Daeryangwon. After they all attacked her, she and Mokjong fell. She lived (964–1029).


997-1028/29 Regent for the Caliph-Governor Sayuda Sirin Hatyn of Gabal of Persia
Reigned in the name of first her son and then for grandson, both of the Bayide Dynasty


997-1028 Regent Dowager Khanum Sayyida of Ray (Iran)
997-1016  Regent of Hamadan
Also known as Seyyedh, she became regent after the death of her husband, the Buyid Amir Fakhr al-Daula, for two sons in two principalities, Abu Taleb Rostam in of Ray and Abu Taher in Hamadan. They both declared themselves independent and assumed the title of Shâhanshâh, but by 1009 or 1010 at the latest had recognized the authority of Baha' al-Daula, who controlled Fars and Iraq, and abandoned the title. In 1006 or 1007, with the assistance of the vizier Abu 'Ali ibn 'Ali, the oldest son attempted to throw off her regency, but she escaped to the Kurd Abu Najr Badr ibn Hasanuya, and together with her younger son they put Ray under siege. After several battles, the city was taken and the older son, Abu Taleb Rostam, who was also known as Majd al-Daula was imprisoned him in the fort of Tabarak, while her younger son took to power in Ray. After a year, the oldest son was released and reinstated in Ray; the younger returned to Hamadan. And she continued to hold power. Gorgan and Tabaristan had been lost to the Ziyarids in 997, while several of the western towns were seized by the Sallarids of Azerbaijan. There were also internal troubles, such as a revolt in 1016 or 1017. Towards the end of her life, she had to prevent her younger son from seizing Ray from his brother, but after her death, he was deposed. (d. 1028).


997 Regent Dowager Queen Sarolta of Transylvania of Hungary
Also known as Sarolt or Beleknegini (White Princess). According to contemporary sources, she took over the regency for her teenage son, István I, after the death of her husband, Géza. A relative of her husband claimed the throne and demanded that she married him, but she resisted. She was daughter of the Prince of Transylvania or Sibenbürgen, and lived (circa 955-circa 1008).

Elvira of Leon 999-1008 Regent Dowager Queen Elivra García of León (Spain)
After the death of her husband, Bermudo II (953-84-99), she was joint-regent with Mendos Gonzales for son Alfonso V (989-999-1028). Born as Princess of Castilla and lived (965-1017)

Adelheid I von Sachsen of Quedlingburg

999-1043 Princess-Abbess Adelheid I von Sachsen of Quedlinburg
1014-43 Reigning Abbess of Gernrode, Froshe, Vreden
1039-43 Reigning Abbess of Gandersheim (Germany)

Daughter of Emperor Otto II and Theophano. Already as a child her aunt, Mathilde, had placed her in the Chapter of Quedlinburg. In 984 she was taken hostage by Heinrich of Bavaria, who wanted to be king of Germany and saw the seven year old girl as a possible tool, since she had been considered a candidate for the succession in the event of her brother's death, but she was liberated by a large Saxon force Her nieces were also Abbesses: Sophia of Gandersheim, Ida of Sankt Marias Köln, Hedwig of Neuss, Theophano of Nevilles and Mathilda of Villach und Didenkirchen. Adelheid lived (977-1043 or 1045).

Last update 12.06.14

Note: This site is built in Microsoft Expression
which does not allow for adaption to newer browsers
and as a result
may appear untidy