Czech Heads

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Female Czech Republic Heads of State (Bohemia)

See also Czech Substates, Czech Eccleastical and Austria Heads of State

1261-85 Politically Influential Queen Kunigunda Rostislavna of Kiev of Bohemia
A dominant force during the reign of her husband, King Otakar II of Bohemia, who had dicored his first wife, Margrethe von Habsburg who was unable to have children. Kunigunda was especially influential when it came to the politics towards Hungary. After his death she tried to convince both King Rudolf von Habsburg and Otto V. von Brandenburg, who had been named guardians for her son Vaclav (1271-1305), that her late husband had designated her as guard and regent of the realm. She made a truce with Rudolf, but Otto took her and her son prisoner and took control over Bohemia. Rudolf attacked Otto and she was released together with her son, and was in charge of only the province surrounding Prauge. In 1284 she married Count Zawisch von Falkenstejn and Rozmberk, who acted as the real ruler after Vaclav was released from the regency in 1283 at the age of 12. Kunigunde was daughter of Grand Prince Rostislaw II of Kiev and Anna of Hungary, and lived (circa 1245-85). 

1287-97 Politically Influential Queen Guta von Habsburg of Bohemia
Soon after her marriage to Václav II  of Bohemia she gained influence on him and inflamed his expansion plans in Slesia and Poland and she introduced German traditions at court, most importantly the presence of knights and she thereby continued the opening of Prague to the west, that Kunigunde of Swabia had begun, and the city became a cultural centre. She also tried to reconcile her husband and brother, Albrecht, Duke of Austria and her role in foreign politics was not without significance. She gave birth to 10 children but only the son Václav and the daughters Anna, Elisabeth und Margarethe survived. The two first motioned both became Queens of Bohemia. She originally named Jutta and was daughter of Count Rudolf von Habsburg and his first wife Gertrud von Hohenberg, and lived (1271-97).

1306 Regent Dowager Queen Ryksa Elzbieta of Bohemia
1306-35 Lady of Königsgrätz
Elisabeth-Richsa had been politically influential 1303-05 during the reign of her husband, Václav II of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, and regent from August till October, when she married Rudolf III of Austria, who was titular king of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland until his death one year later, but in reality Hungary and Bohemia was in an interregnum. Elzbieta married her third husband, Heinrich zur Lippe in 1315 and they continued as leaders of the Bohemian nobility against Queen Elisabeth. After his death in 1329, she withdrew to the Convent of Aula Sankt Mariæ in Brünn. She was daughter of King Przemyl II of Poland and Richeza, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, and lived (1288-1335).  

1307-10 Queen Anna Přemyslova of Bohemia
She was daughter of King Václav II and his first wife Guta. She was married to Heinrich von Kärnten in 1306, which was named the Deputy of her father. After the murder of her brother, Václav III, and the take over of power by her cousin Rudolf von Habsburg (son of her mother's brother, King Albrecht von Habsburg of Germany) - who married her stepmother Elzbieta Ryksa of Poland - she fled with her husband to Kärnten. After Rudolf's death, Heinrich was elected king of Bohemia - legitimized by her succession-rights. When they tried to marry her younger sister, Eliška to Otto von Berg, she refused and took the offer of the Bohemian nobility to join the opposition against Heinrich. In 1310 Eliška married Johann von Luxembourg who occupied Prague and Anna and her husband spend the rest of her life in exile in Kärnten. She did not have any children, and lived (1290-1313).

1307-10 Opposition Leader Eliška Přemyslova in Bohemia
1310-25 Politically Influential Queen of Bohemia
After the death of her father, Václav II of Bohemia and Poland and the murder of her brother, Václav III she joined her aunt, Abbess Kunigunde (Kuhnuta) in the Convent of the Holy Georg at the Castle of Prague. She realized the weaknesses of her brother-in-law King Heinrich, and accepted the offer of the Bohemian nobility of clerics to marry another future ruler. In the summer 1310 she took part in the Assembly of the Land, which voted on the candidature of Johann von Luxemburg (1296-1346). He accepted the offer, and they married in September and returned to Prague in December the same year and deposed her sister and brother-in-law. She favoured a hard line against the opposition and because of her pressure her husband imprisoned the spokesperson of the Bohemian nobility, Heinrich von Lipá (Jindřich z Lipé) which led to civil war and almost cost them the crown and it was not until 1318 that peace was restored when her husband recognized the position of the nobility. Eliška was against this and was in opposition to her husband. She remained in Bavarian exile until 1325 and took part in her last political action - the abolition of the fiefs of the Slesian Dukes. But at this time she already lived apart from her husband, who took care of his duties in Europe, where their children were also distributed at various courts. Her last years was influenced by her lack of finances which unabled her to maintain a court. Also known as Elizabeth, she lived (1292-1330).

1419 Regent Queen Sophia of Bavaria of Bohemia
After the death of her husband, Václav IV, of Bohemia, she was regent until Sigismund of Luxembourg took over the throne. Her husband was king of Germany (1378-1400), Duke of Luxembourg (1378-1419) and Holy Roman Emperor 1400-19 as Wenzel. She was the daughter of John II of Bayern-München and Catherine of Gorize, and she lived (1376-1425).

1412-14, 1416-19 and 1431-33 "Stadtholder" Queen Barbara von Cilli in Hungary and Croatia
1437 "Stadtholder" of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Her husband, Sigmund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary and King of Germany from 1410, king of Bohemia from 1419 and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433. In Hungary she took over the "regni curia" when he went to Italy, first supported by her brother-in-law the Palatine Garai Miklós and two bishops. 1414-16 she went to Aachen for the coronation and participated in the Council of Konstanz before she returned and took over the government in Hungary. In the 1420's she followed her husband on his journeys during the Empire and he included her in the decision-making. During her second regency in Hungary she managed to maintain peace after a settlement was reached with the Hussites. After her coronation as Queen of Bohemia in 1437 she also acted as regent here for a few moths. After her husband's death the same year she was arrested by his successor, Albrecht II, but was able to flee to Poland. After Albrecht's death in 1439 she returned and settled at her dowry at Menik near Prague for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Herman II, Count von Cilli and Countess Anna von Schaunberg, mother of one daughter, Elisabeth, and lived (1390/95-1451).

1437-48 Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia-Hungaria
Her husband, Albert of Austria, was king until 1439 and their son, Ladislas Posthumous was king 1440-57

1744-80 Queen Maria-Theresa of Hungaria, Bohemia and Austria
See Austria Heads of State for more details.

1766-80 Governor Maria-Christine von Habsburg-Lothringen of
She was daughter of Maria-Thersa and was joint governor with husband Albert von Sachsen-Teschen. They became governors of The Netherlands in 1780.

1998-2001 3rd, Deputy Head of State, The President of the Senate Libuše Benešova
Deputy Chairperson of the Rightwing Liberal Party HDZ.
(b. 1948-).


Last update 15.11.07