Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Also see Armenia Ministers
Queen Regnant Erato of Greater Armenia
Queen Regnant Zarmandukht of Greater Armenia
Her name is also spelled Zarmandux, she was widow of King Pap (known as homosexual), who was killed on the orders of the Byzantine general Terent who probably acted on the instigation of Musheg Mamikonean, after he had ordered the death of the Catholicos, Nerses the Great, in 373. He was succeeded by his cousin, Varazdat, who was on the throne until 378. She took power but from 378 until his death in 385, Manuel Mamikonean, was the real ruler of Armenia. He ruled not as king, but as a "trustee" of the monarchy in the name of her son, and kept both of them in the king's place and causing them to circulate around in honor. He nourished her two sons Arshak and Vagharsha as his foster-children and honoured her.
1219-52 Queen Regnant Zabel I. of Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) (Turkey/Syria)
Her father, Leo II had promished his nephew Raimond-Ruben de Antiochiaia, the succession to the throne, but at his deathbed he named Zabel or Isabella, as his heir. Her older sister, Stephanie, or her husband, Jean de Brienne, claimed the title for her and their young son, but they died shortly after. And the Armenian nobles follwed the wish of Leo II, and paid homage to her as their Queen, under various male regents. She later ruled together with her two husbands; Phillip 1222-25 (he was poisoned) and Heton I (1226-1269). The Kingdom was established with the Mongol invasion of mid-eleventh century Armenia, when a number of Armenians, led by Prince Reuben, were pushed westwards. In 1080 they established in Cilicia the kingdom of Lesser Armenia, centered on Tarsus, north of Norman-controlled Antiochia and west of Edessa. Armenia Minor established very close ties with the Crusader States. It was still threatened by Byzantium, however, and appears to have come under Byzantine overlordship for short periods. Zabel was daughter of King Leo II and Sibylla de Lusignan of Cyprus-Jerusalem, mother of two sons and two daughters, and lived (circa 1212-52).
1219 Pretender Stephaine of Armenia
She and her husband, King Jean de Brienne of Jerusalem, claimed the throne of Armenia instead of her younger sister, who had been proclaimed heir by their father on his deathbed. Jean made preparations to attack Cilicia but she died shortly after, apparently after being battered by himself after she had tried to poison his daughter by his first wife. Their son also died shortly after. (d. 1219).
1344 Regent Dowager Queen Maria of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia) (Syria and Turkey)
1363-73 Politically Active
After Constantine IV of Armenia, the first Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was killed in an uprising in 1344 after two years in office, she was regent. The new king was a distant cousin, Constantine V of Armenia, who died of natural causes in 1362. She then married Constantine VI another distant cousin, who formed an alliance with Peter I of Cyprus, offering him the port and castle of Corycus. On Peter's death in 1369, Constantine looked for a treaty with the Sultan of Cairo. The barons were unhappy with this policy, fearing annexation by the Sultan, and in 1373 Constantine was murdered. The year before she had sent a letter to Pope Gregory XI requesting military help against the Moslems. After her husband's death, the Pope urged her to marry Otto of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Jeanne of Anjou, Princess of Tarent and Oshin Korikos (or Corycos), who was regent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1320-1329 during king Leo V's minority. He was rumoured to have poisoned King Oshin and was probably responsible for the deaths of Leo's father, Oshin's sister Isabella of Armenia and two of her sons. He and his daughter, Alice was assassinated in 1329 at the behest of her husband Leo V.
1974-ca.89 Vice-President Rama K. Svettova
Last update 10.07.05